`Flavortop' nectarines [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] were stored at -0.5C or 3C for 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks, after which the fruit was ripened at 15C. After ripening, fruit samples were tested daily or every second day for extractable juice, internal conductivity, and woolliness. The change in the percentage of extractable juice during ripening differed very little among the five storage periods. A rapid increase in internal conductivity occurred during ripening in fruit with or without cold storage, but the onset of the increase was advanced with longer cold-storage periods. No woolliness developed in fruit not placed in cold storage or in fruit cold-stored for 1 or 2 weeks at - 0.5C or 3C. Woolliness only developed during ripening of fruit cold-stored for 3 or 4 weeks at -0.5C or 3C. Incidence of woolliness increased to high levels during ripening and decreased thereafter to no woolly fruit by the 11th day. The lowest values for extractable juice coincided with the highest incidence of woolly fruit. Fruit stored for 4 weeks took longer to pass the woolliness stage. At the end of the ripening. period, cold-stored fruit were similar in appearance and juiciness to those ripened without cold storage. Nectarines stored at 3C generally developed woolliness earlier, had a lower incidence of woolliness, and took longer to overcome the problem than fruit stored at -0.5C. Incidence of browning of the mesocarp tissue was greater at 3C than at -0.5C.
L.J. von Mollendorff, G. Jacobs, and O.T. de Villiers
Jinwook Lee, In-Kyu Kang, Jacqueline F. Nock, and Christopher B. Watkins
’, ‘Golden Delicious’, and ‘Bisbee Delicious’ apples ( McArtney et al., 2008 ; Yuan and Li, 2008 ; Watkins et al., 2010 ). In addition, preharvest treatment can retain fruit firmness of ‘Gamhong’ apples during cold storage ( Yoo et al., 2013 ) and of
Ahmad Sattar Khan and Zora Singh
postharvest application of polyamines ( Serrano et al., 2003 ), aminoethoxyvinylglycine ( Jobling et al., 2003 ), and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) ( Khan and Singh, 2007 ; Watkins, 2006 ); edible coating ( Navarro et al., 2005 ); cold storage ( Robertson et
R. H. Mullin and D. E. Schlegel
Long preservation of potentially valuable germplasm of strawberry (Fragaria spp.) was facilitated by cold storage of “pathogen-free” meristem plantlets. More than 50 different cultivars have been maintained for up to 6 years as meristem plantlets in sterile culture tubes at 4°C air temperature in darkness.
Bruce H. Barritt and Louis C. Torre
Plant mortality from early April or later plantings of dormant ‘Willamette’ red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) stock dug from propagation field in February and placed in cold storage (-1.1° and 1.7°C) was never higher than 3.1% as compared to as high as 24% from heeled in and freshly dug plants. Cold-stored plants produced comparable growth to heeled in and freshly dug plants. Pre- and postharvest dips with N-[(trichloromethyl)thio]-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide (captan) and methyl 1-(butyl carbamoyl) 2-benzimidazolecarbainate (benomyl) did not influence mortality or plant growth, nor did the addition of sawdust, peat moss or vermiculite as moist packing materials in cold storage. Planting stock with cane diameters greater than 6.4 mm had lower mortality and produced more growth than stock with canes less than 6.4 mm in diameter. Plant growth from propagation stocks was negatively correlated with planting date.
Bahman Shafii and Danny L. Barney
Trials were conducted to determine the effects of air drying and cold storage on black huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum Douglas ex Hooker) seeds. Treatments included fresh seeds, seeds air-dried for 7 days, and those air-dried and stored at 2 to 3 °C for either 1 or 7 years. Germination was measured every 7 days. The time course of germination was modeled using a logistic growth curve from which days to 50% germination (T50), germination rate index, and maximum germination percentages were estimated. Germination curves of dried and of dried and cold-stored seeds were significantly different from that of fresh seeds. Seeds stored for 1 or 7 years had germination percentages similar to those for the fresh, nondried seeds. Air drying for 7 days reduced the maximum germination percentage from 73% to 59% (fresh seeds). This induced dormancy was gradually lost during cold storage of dry seeds. Cold storage of air-dried seeds was an effective method for preserving V. membranaceum germplasm for at least 7 years.
S. W. Porritt and P. D. Lidster
Exposing ‘Spartan’ or ‘Golden Delicious’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) to 38°C for 4 to 6 days immediately after harvest suppressed softening during subsequent storage at −1°C 90 to 94% relative humidity. The rate of acid loss during the period of heating was rapid, but returned to normal during cold storage. Breakdown, core browning, and decay of ‘Spartan’ apple were almost eliminated by the heat treatment. There were no physiological disorders in the ‘Golden Delicious’.
W.R. Miller and R.E. McDonald
Carambolas (Averrhoa carambola L.) must be treated with an approved insect quarantine procedure such as cold treatment before shipment to certain markets. Condition and quality of mature-green (MG) and slightly yellow (SY) fruit were determined after they were: 1) treated with ethylene at 0.1 ml·L-1 for 48 hours (C2H4), 2) subjected to cold treatment (CT) at 1 °C for 15 days, and 3) held in storage at 5 °C for 7 days plus 3 days at 15 °C. Ethylene-treated fruit were softer and yellowness was enhanced compared with non-C2H4-treated fruit. MG fruit were firmer and lost more mass following CT and storage than SY fruit. C2H4 treatment increased the severity of peel scald, stem-end breakdown (SEB), and fin browning but had no effect on pitting. CT increased the severity of scald and pitting, and the severity of SEB, but did not affect fin browning. Peel scald, pitting, SEB, and fin browning were more severe in MG than in SY fruit at the final evaluation. C2H4-treated fruit had lower total soluble solids concentration, higher titratable acidity and pH, and a less preferred flavor and texture than control fruit. We conclude that carambola fruit should be selected at harvest at the slight-yellow stage (3% to 25% of surface area) instead of at the mature-green stage. Fruit to be cold-stored should not be C2H4 treated due to enhanced mold development and severity of SEB.
Rachel Leisso, Ines Hanrahan, and Jim Mattheis
, J.J. Hoover, E.E. Bedford, D.S. 2002 Storage potential of cold-hardy apple cultivars J. Amer. Pomol. Soc. 56 34 45 Etienne, A. Génard, M. Lobit, P. Mbeguié-A-Mbéguié, D. Bugaud, C. 2013 What controls fleshy fruit acidity? A review of malate and
Rafael Alique, José P. Zamorano, Ma Luisa Calvo, Carmen Merodio, and José L. De la Plaza
`Fino de Jete' cherimoya fruit were stored at 20, 10, 8, or 6C, 80% relative humidity. Two rises of CO2 production and an ethylene rise following the first peak of respiration were obtained in fruit held at 20C. The ripe stage coincided with the onset of the second respiratory rise. Soluble sugar and organic acid concentration were maximal, and flesh firmness was 18 N in ripe fruit. Lower temperature reduced respiration rate and ethylene production; however, some stimulation of ethylene synthesis was observed at 10C. Cherimoyas ripened to edible condition during 6 days at 10C, but fruit maintained at 8C for up to 12 days required transfer to 20C to ripen properly. Our results suggest that high increases in CO2 are not sufficient to complete cherimoya fruit ripening without the concurrent rise in ethylene production. Citric acid accumulation, inhibition of ethylene synthesis, and reduced accumulation of sucrose were observed during storage at 6C. Removal to 20C after 12 days at 6C resulted in no ripening, almost complete inhibition of ethylene synthesis, and severe skin browning. Thus, 8C is the lowest tolerable temperature for prolonged cold storage of cherimoya `Fino de Jete'. Fruit can be held at 8C for up to 12 days without damage from chilling injury.