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James C. Fulton and Mark E. Uchanski

L.) and chile ( Capsicum annuum L.). Univ. of Ariz., Tucson, PhD Diss. 1–173 Stolk, J.H. Maaswinkel, R.H.M. 1977 Cultivars of autumn red pepper (in Dutch) Groenten en Fruit 32 39 1943 Uffelen, L.G. 1973 Spotting (pitting), a quality problem in

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Derek W. Barchenger, Danise L. Coon, and Paul W. Bosland

Chile peppers have extensive morphological diversity, especially for leaf and fruit color and shape as well as plant habit. This diversity has led to the development of chile pepper plants for ornamental applications ( Stommel and Bosland, 2006

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Paul W. Bosland and Jit B. Baral

Chile peppers ( Capsicum L. spp.) are known for causing the sensation of heat or burning when consumed. The heat sensation is incited by the type and the amount of a group of capsaicinoids, the alkaloids found only in chile pepper pods ( Zewdie

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Derek W. Barchenger, Joseph I. Said, Yang Zhang, Mingzhou Song, Franchesca A. Ortega, Yeasong Ha, Byoung-Cheorl Kang, and Paul W. Bosland

Chile peppers are native to the arid regions of the Andes Mountains in what is now Peru and Bolivia, and at least 35 wild species have been identified within the genus. As one of the oldest New World crops, chile pepper domestication began ≈8000

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Paul W. Bosland, Danise Coon, and Peter H. Cooke

Chile peppers are one of the first crops domesticated in the Western Hemisphere about 10,000 BCE ( Perry et al., 2007 ). In fact, the Capsicum genus was so important to humans that when they came into contact with it, five different Capsicum

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Derek W. Barchenger, Khin Thandar, Thain Gi Myint, Tran Ngoc Hung, Nguyen Quoc Hung, Shih-wen Lin, Yen-wei Wang, and Tsung-han Lin

Chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) is an important crop worldwide, with an estimated 25% of people consuming some form (vegetable, spice, or food colorant) of pepper every day ( Halikowski-Smith 2015 ). In 2017, global harvested area of chile peppers

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Derek W. Barchenger, Sopana Yule, Nakarin Jeeatid, Shih-wen Lin, Yen-wei Wang, Tsung-han Lin, Yuan-li Chan, and Lawrence Kenyon

Chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) is widely used as a vegetable and spice and a source of colorants and pharmaceuticals ( Wall and Bosland, 1998 ). Consumer demand for chile pepper has substantially increased over the past 30 years, especially for

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Harmandeep Sharma, Manoj K. Shukla, Paul W. Bosland, and Robert L. Steiner

Chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) is an important commercially cultivated crop in many countries including China, Mexico, Korea, and United States. United States ranked fifth among top 20 chile-producing countries with 918, 210 t of production. In

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Ariadna Monroy-Barbosa and Paul W. Bosland

Chile pepper is a very important crop worldwide, being used in the food industry as well as a coloring agent for food and cosmetics, an ingredient in pain relief medicine, antimugger sprays, and so on ( Bosland, 1996 ; Lucier and Jerardo, 2006

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Genhua Niu, Pedro Osuna, Youping Sun, and Denise S. Rodriguez

chile peppers ( Capsicum annuum ) are popular bedding plants and containerized plants resulting from their compact growth habit and numerous fruits that spread over the top of the plant and attractive foliage ( Coon et al., 2008 ). The indeterminate