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Yanjie Wang, Yeqing Chen, Man Yuan, Zeyun Xue, Qijiang Jin, and Yingchun Xu

synthase (CHS), which is required for the synthesis of all flavonoids. Chalcone isomerase (CHI) is the enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of chalcone to form colorless naringenin. The naringenin is then converted to dihydrokaempferol (DHK) by flavanone

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Dineshkumar Selvaraj, Sherif Sherif, Mohd Sabri Pak Dek, Gopinadhan Paliyath, Islam El-Sharkawy, and Jayasankar Subramanian

ammonia-lyase (PAL), ( B ) chalcone synthase (CHS), ( C ) dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), ( D ) anthocyanin synthase (ANS), ( E ) UDP-glucose flavanoid 3-O glucosyl transferase ( UFGT 1 ), and ( F ) UDP-glucose flavanoid 3-O glucosyl transferase ( UFGT 2

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Xinwang Zhang, Ikuo Nakamura, and Masahiro Mii

., 2001 ). To our knowledge, however, PCR-RFLP analysis has not been used for determining the parents of garden petunias. Chalcone synthase is a key enzyme of the anthocyanin biosynthesis and encoded by the structural Chs gene ( Heller and Hahlbrock

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Gordon J. Lightbourn, John R. Stommel, and Robert J. Griesbach

. RNA analysis. Flavonoid gene expression [MYC, MYB, and WD transcription factors, anthocyanin synthase ( Ans ), dihydroflavonol reductase ( Dfr ), and chalcone synthase ( Chs )] was compared under inductive and noninductive environments for

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Lin Zhou, Qianqian Shi, Yan Wang, Kui Li, Baoqiang Zheng, and Kun Miao

as a calibration standard. Error bars indicate sd s. PsCHS1 = a chalcone synthase homolog gene of arabidopsis, PsCHI1 = a chalcone isomerase homolog gene of arabidopsis, PP2A = protein phosphatase 2A gene, ACT2 = actin2 gene, TUB = beta

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Jan Bizjak, Nika Weber, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek, Ana Slatnar, Franci Stampar, Zobayer Alam, Karl Stich, Heidi Halbwirth, and Robert Veberic

= chalcone synthase; FHT = flavanone-3-hydroxylase; DFR = dihydroflavonol 4-reductase. The significant influence of Pho Ca was seen only in the case of DFR ( P = 0.01), in which the average activity (nkat·g −1 FW) during ripening in the treated apples (0

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Md. Aktar Hossain, Sooah Kim, Kyoung Heon Kim, Sung-Joon Lee, and Hojoung Lee

-induced chalcone synthase gene expression in petunia corollas Plant Physiol. 113 419 424 Muller, S.F. Klement, S. 2006 A combination of valerian and lemon balm is effective in the treatment of restlessness and dyssomnia in

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David Gopaulchan, Adrian M. Lennon, and Pathmanathan Umaharan

and shown to be a likely candidate for M through expression analysis ( Gopaulchan et al., 2014 ). Fig. 1. A simplified diagram of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Anthurium andraeanum ; chalcone synthase ( CHS ), chalcone isomerase ( CHI

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Ben-Hong Wu, Ning Niu, Ji-Hu Li, and Shao-Hua Li

flavonoids ( Holton and Cornish, 1995 ). Two identified proteins, chalcone synthase [CHS (spot 37)] and dihydroflavonol reductase [DFR (spot 41)], were classified as connected to secondary metabolism (MIPS function 01.20) and were highly expressed in berry

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Qianqian Shi, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Xiang Li, Lijuan Zhai, Xiaoning Luo, Jianrang Luo, Lixia He, Yanlong Zhang, and Long Li

effect of the coexpression of chalcone synthase ( PsCHS ), flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase gene ( PsF3′H ), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase gene ( PsDFR ), and anthocyanidin synthase ( PsANS ) ( Zhang et al., 2015 ). It has been shown to be regulated by R2R3-MYB TFs