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M. Gabriela Buamscha, James E. Altland, Dan M. Sullivan, Donald A. Horneck, and James Cassidy

Container crops in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) are grown primarily in Douglas fir [ Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). Similar to Loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) bark in the southeast United States, DFB comprises the highest

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Magdalena Pancerz and James E. Altland

’ hakonechloa [ Hakonechloa macra (Makino) Honda] grew best in a 3 pine bark: 2 sphagnum peat: 1 sand (by volume) substrate with no DL amendment (pH 4.5). They speculated this favorable response was due to the plant’s adaptation to the low pH soil found in the

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Cody J. Stewart, S. Christopher Marble, Brian Jackson, Brian J. Pearson, P. Christopher Wilson, and Dwight K. Lauer

In the eastern United States, pine bark is the predominate substrate component in outdoor nursery container plant production. Pine bark is a byproduct of the timber industry and is stripped off logs following harvest. Once the removed pine bark is

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Cheryl R. Boyer, Thomas V. Gallagher, Charles H. Gilliam, Glenn B. Fain, H. Allen Torbert, and Jeff L. Sibley

There has been a considerable amount of interest in alternative substrates for both nursery and greenhouse crop production in recent years. This is due primarily to a decrease in domestic production of pine bark (PB), from which the primary

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James E. Altland and Kay Yeon Jeong

Ground pine bark pH ranges from 4.1 to 5.1 before amendment with other components or fertilizers ( Brown and Pokorny, 1975 ; Gillman et al., 1998 ; Wright et al., 1999a , 1999b ). Limestone is traditionally used to raise the pH of pine bark

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Tyler C. Hoskins, James S. Owen Jr., Jeb S. Fields, James E. Altland, Zachary M. Easton, and Alex X. Niemiera

Pine bark is a widely used substrate component in the southeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the U.S. nursery industry for the production of container-grown, woody ornamental crops. As a result of the high porosity and relatively low water

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James E. Altland and M. Gabriela Buamscha

Ornamental container crops in the Pacific Northwest are grown primarily in Douglas fir [ Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). Similar to pine ( Pinus taeda L .) bark in the southeast United States, DFB comprises the highest portion

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James S. Owen Jr and James E. Altland

container at 2-cm intervals using simulation models based on moisture characteristic curves of a 3 bark:1 sand (by vol.) substrate. The predicted gradient had a 37% (110 mL) increase in substrate moisture content from the top (32% CC) to bottom (69% CC) of a

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Jacob H. Shreckhise, James S. Owen Jr., Matthew J. Eick, Alexander X. Niemiera, James E. Altland, and Brian E. Jackson

. (2001) and Michalak et al. (2015) concluded that P runoff from agricultural operations is a primary contributor to eutrophication in the United States. Substrates used in containerized nursery crop production predominantly comprise pine bark ( Pinus

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Aude Tixier, Adele Amico Roxas, Jessie Godfrey, Sebastian Saa, Dani Lightle, Pauline Maillard, Bruce Lampinen, and Maciej A. Zwieniecki

temperature interferes with phenology comes from the common orchard practice of painting stems to protect them from disease ( Karels and Boonstra, 2003 ; Sheppard et al., 2016 ). White bark is also naturally displayed in species of Betula , Fraxinus , and