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N.K.D. Ranwala, K. Brock, C.L. Ray, K. Greene, and D.R. Decoteau

The effects of two winter cover crops, rye and crimson clover, on bell pepper yield were studied. Cover crops were planted in fall and incorporated into the soil prior to bell pepper planting. Both cover crops increased the marketable number and weight of bell peppers, and reduced the cull number of bell peppers compared to fallow (control) treatment. Delaying the harvest increased the marketable yield in both cover crops. Since there was no difference in bell pepper yield between two cover crops, both cover crops can be used effectively for bell pepper production. Use of cover crops may reduce the production costs and harmful effects on the environment by reducing chemical dependency, and increase the crop yield.

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J.L. Adrian, C.C. Montgomery, B.K. Behe, K.M. Tilt, and P.A. Duffy

In-field (IF) and above-ground (AG) container production of landscape ornamentals are both conventional methods which were compared to a newer production method, pot-in-pot (PIP). Our objective was to determine costs and economic feasibility for each method. Model nurseries were synthesized to represent a 4-ha nursery utilizing 2 ha of production area operating over a three-year period. Finished plant material were grown in 40-L containers for above-ground and pot-in-pot production, and 2 m ball and burlapped material for in-field production. One budget was constructed to reflect costs for Lagerstroemia indica, Cornusflorida, and × Cupressocyparis leylandii under each production method. Capital requirements and annual fixed costs for all three species were lowest for IF and highest for PIP production. Variable costs for all tree species were lowest for IF and highest for AG with PIP intermediate. With better utilization of a given production area, PIP had the lowest total cost of production, followed by AG and IF methods.

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Aref A. Abdul-Baki, J.R. Teasdale, R. Korcak, D.J. Chitwood, and R.N. Huettel

A low-input sustainable agricultural system for the production of staked, fresh-market field tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is described. The system uses winter annual cover crops to fix N, recycle leftover nutrients, produce biomass, and prevent soil erosion throughout the winter and spring. Yields of tomato plants grown in hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), and rye (Secale cereale L.) plus hairy vetch mulches were higher than those grown in the conventional black polyethylene (BP) mulch system in 2 of 3 years. Fruit were heavier with the plant mulches than with BP mulch. Eight weeks after transplanting, N levels in tomato leaves were higher with plant than with BP mulch, although the plant mulch plots received only 50% of the N applied to the BP plots. The cover crops had no effect on populations of five phytoparasitic nematode species.

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Doug Sanders, Luz M. Reyes, David Monks, Frank Louws, and James Driver

We evaluated the influence of three compost sources and compost amended with T382 with fumigant Telone C-35 and various combinations of compost and Telone C-35 on the yield and pest management of cucumber, pepper, tomato, collard, southern pea, and summer squash in a multicrop rotational system. In the first year, there were few differences between the compost treatments and Telone C-35, but all treatments resulted in more yield than the control. In the second year, all compost treatments and/or Telone C-35 improved total and marketable yield of cucumber, pepper, tomato, southern pea, and summer squash. Furthermore, in the second year, Telone C-35 treat-ments produced more yield than some of the compost treatments in tomatoes. Combining Telone C-35 with compost did not differ from either treatment alone. Nematode and disease assessments were not consistent and will be discussed in further detail.

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Nicole L. Shaw, Daniel J. Cantliffe, Julio Funes, and Cecil Shine III

Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is an exciting new greenhouse crop for production in the southeastern U.S. and Florida. Beit Alpha cucumbers are short, seedless fruit with dark-green skin and an excellent sweet flavor. Beit Alpha-types are the leading cucumber types in the Middle Eastern market and have gained recent popularity in Europe. Beit Alpha cucumbers grown hydroponically under a protected structure have prolific fruit set, yielding more than 60 high-quality fruit per plant during one season. U.S. hydroponic vegetable production is generally associated with structure and irrigation investments which are costly as well as other inputs, such as the media, which must be replaced annually or with each crop. Beit Alpha cucumber `Alexander' was grown in Spring 2001 and 2002 in a passive-ventilated high-roof greenhouse in Gainesville, Fla. Three media types, coarse-grade perlite, medium-grade perlite, and pine bark, were compared for efficiency of growing cucumbers (production and potential costs). During both seasons, fruit yield was the same among media treatments [average of 6 kg (13.2 lb) per plant]. Irrigation requirements were the same for each type of media; however, leachate volume was sometimes greater from pots with pine bark compared to either grade of perlite suggesting a reduced need for irrigation volume when using pine bark. Pine bark is five times less expensive than perlite and was a suitable replacement for perlite in a hydroponic Beit Alpha cucumber production system.

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M. Lenny Wells

in the cost of a single input dramatically reduces the profit margin for pecan producers. Legumes and manure, produced by cattle grazing the orchards, were commonly used to provide fertilizer N for pecan trees in the early years of the southeastern

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Robin G. Brumfield, Alyssa J. DeVincentis, Xueni Wang, R. Thomas Fernandez, Susmitha Nambuthiri, Robert L. Geneve, Andrew K. Koeser, Guihong Bi, Tongyin Li, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Diana Cochran, Amy Fulcher, and J. Ryan Stewart

plant materials, including feathers, manure, rice hulls, and straw. Some decompose quickly and are biodegradable, often referred to as biocontainers ( Nambuthiri et al., 2015 ). Using alternative containers increases the sustainability of an operation by

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Susmitha Nambuthiri, Amy Fulcher, Andrew K. Koeser, Robert Geneve, and Genhua Niu

al., 2009 ). Green industry stakeholders (i.e., nursery, greenhouse, and landscape professionals) have identified the use of plantable or compostable biodegradable container alternatives as a marketable way to improve the sustainability of current

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Allen V. Barker and Randall G. Prostak

) and mechanical treatments, such as burning, steaming, or mulching ( Barker and Prostak, 2008 ; Young, 2002 , 2004 ). One chemical alternative is to use herbicides that have little effect on the environment after weeds are killed or controlled

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Olha Sydorovych, Charles D. Safley, Rob M. Welker, Lisa M. Ferguson, David W. Monks, Katie Jennings, Jim Driver, and Frank J. Louws

many commodities because no known single alternative fumigant, chemical, or other technology exists that can readily substitute for MeBr in efficacy, cost, ease of use, availability, worker safety, and environmental safety below the ozone layer ( Osteen