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Celina Gómez and Cary A. Mitchell

using a pad-and-fan evaporative-cooling system or heated using radiant hot-water-pipe heating regulated by an environmental control system (Maximizer Precision 10; Priva Computers, Vineland Station, ON, Canada). Lighting treatments. The greenhouse floor

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Michael P. Dzakovich, Celina Gómez, and Cary A. Mitchell

-HPS lamps (PL Lighting Systems, Beamsville, ON), or natural solar radiation plus supplemental light from IC-LED towers (ORBITEC, Madison, WI). The IC-LED towers emitted red (peak wavelength = 627 nm) and blue (peak wavelength = 450 nm) light with a 95:5 red

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Joey H. Norikane

for traditional growth regulators and the associated regulatory issues. A flexible LED lighting system could be used to develop optimized lighting strategies for N. benthamiana and other host plants. N. benthamiana is recognized as the model plant

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Alexander G. Litvin, Christopher J. Currey, and Lester A. Wilson

by lighting treatments between 0600 and 2200 hr . Each DFT system was placed underneath a 400-W HPS lamp (PL 3000; P.L. Light Systems, Beamsville, ON, Canada), or LEDs with low B:R (B—450 nm peak λ; R—670 nm peak λ) light ratio of 7:93 [LB (DR

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Geoffrey Weaver and Marc W. van Iersel

, low radiant heat load, and variable spectra. Another unique feature of LEDs is that the intensity of their light output can be controlled precisely and rapidly in a manner that is not possible with HID lamps. Lighting control systems that use this

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Allison Hurt, Roberto G. Lopez, and Joshua K. Craver

lighting (control; natural light), four SL, and three PL treatments. SL treatments were delivered by 200-W LED (LED_70) (Philips GP-TOPlight DRW-MB; Koninklijke Philips N.V., Eindhoven, Netherlands) or 400-W HPS lamps (HPS_70) (LR48877; P.L. Light Systems

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Cary A. Mitchell

stacked production systems built at Chiba University in Japan. ( A ) The seven-tiered system built for research and development in 2000 used fluorescent lighting. ( B ) The Chiba plant factory with artificial lighting built in2011 for commercial production

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Daniel Rowley, Brent L. Black, Dan Drost, and Dillon Feuz

system are particularly efficient for maximizing early-season yields ( Sjulin, 2003 ). This annual system has since been adapted to colder climates ( Black et al., 2002 ; Poling, 1993 ). Optimum fruit production in the fall-planted annual hill system

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Celina Gómez, Christopher J. Currey, Ryan W. Dickson, Hye-Ji Kim, Ricardo Hernández, Nadia C. Sabeh, Rosa E. Raudales, Robin G. Brumfield, Angela Laury-Shaw, Adam K. Wilke, Roberto G. Lopez, and Stephanie E. Burnett

-red (measurements from a 600-W HPS fixture; P.L. Light Systems Inc., Beamsville, ON, Canada), LED fixtures can have different color diodes to achieve customized spectra. However, the most common LED fixtures available for plant lighting contain mainly red and blue

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Paul Deram, Mark G. Lefsrud, and Valérie Orsat

greenhouse lighting systems use broad-spectrum light sources such as HPS or fluorescent lamps. LEDs have been shown to decrease artificial lighting costs to less than 25% of the cost of traditional artificial lighting as a result of their 75% higher