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Jiang Lu, Olusola Lamikanra, and Stephen Leong

Gibberellic acid (GA3), a plant growth regulator used routinely in the production of seedless bunch grapes, was sprayed on the seeded muscadine grape cultivar Triumph. GA3 at 100, 200, and 300 mg·L-1 was sprayed on the leaves and fruit clusters at late bloom; a second spray followed 1 week later. The sprayed vines produced more than 20% seedless berries and the size of the berries with seeds increased significantly. GA3 application in commercial muscadine grape production may have potential benefits.

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Stephen J. Stringer, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, and Donna A. Marshall

The consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables has always been known to provide essential nutrition to mankind and, both anecdotally and clinically, has been linked to the prevention or alleviation of chronic diseases. The muscadine grape, a fruit native to the southeastern U.S., contains numerous phenolic compounds that act as antioxidants and also other compounds, such as resveratrol, that acts as a chemopreventative. The concentrations of these compounds present in the muscadine grape equal or exceed that known for any other small fruit. Fruit of selected muscadine grape genotypes, including breeding lines and cultivars, were evaluated over a 2-year period to assess the existing genetic base for these nutraceutical compounds. Results demonstrated that concentrations of total phenolics, ellagic acid, and resveratrol differ significantly among cultivars and breeding lines. These results suggest that it should be possible to breed for increased concentrations of the health-promoting compounds in muscadine grapes.

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Stephen J. Stringer, Donna A. Marshall, James M. Spiers, and Blair J. Sampson

Muscadines are grapes indigenous to the Southeastern United States, and they are highly prized for their unique fruity flavors. Factors including skin color, berry size, skin thickness, flower type, productivity, etc., vary among muscadine grape cultivars, making some cultivars more desirable for fresh market while others are better suited for processing and prodction of juice, jelly, and wine. A muscadine grape research vineyard was established in McNeil, Miss., in 1992 containing 37 named cultivars and numerous breeding lines. Performance of these cultivars was evaluated in 2001–2003 and results of these trials are presented.

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J.B. Magee, B.J. Smith, and Agnes Rimando

Control of muscadine diseases is necessary to minimize yield loss and is especially important for highest quality if the berries are to be marketed fresh. Throughout the 1998 growing season, vines of five muscadine cultivars (`Noble', `Summit', `Cowart', `Higgins', and `Carlos') were treated under a systematic disease control spray program; four fungicides registered for use on grapes were applied sequentially at 10- to 20-day intervals from early bloom until just before harvest. Control plants received no fungicide. The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of the spray schedule on foliage and berry diseases and to study the relationship between disease incidence and resveratrol content of the berries. Resveratrol is a phytoalexin and has been favorably implicated in cardiovascular disease and certain cancer processes. Foliar diseases were rated visually twice during the season. Berry disease ratings were made at harvest. All fungal foliage and berry diseases were significantly reduced by the fungicide treatments. Resveratrol concentrations were determined separately on berry skins, seed and pulp/juice by GC/MS. Overall, resveratrol levels in berry skins from unsprayed vines were much higher than those of sprayed vines. Concentrations varied by cultivar and within cultivar by treatment. The relationship of skin concentration and total disease score or scores of specific diseases has not been established. Seed resveratrol concentrations differed by cultivar but were not affected by the fungicide treatments. Mean concentration of seed was lower than that of skins. Accumulation of resveratrol in juice/pulp was much lower than in skins and seeds.

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Summaira Riaz, Alan C. Tenscher, Brady P. Smith, Daniel A. Ng, and M. Andrew Walker

with Vitis vinifera cultivars. Although Vitis species hybridize freely, Vitis × Muscadinia crosses are difficult, and hybrids are rare and normally sterile, with 39 chromosomes. Crop improvement within M. rotundifolia began with the

Open access

Shanshan Cao, Stephen Stringer, Gunawati Gunawan, Cecilia McGregor, and Patrick J. Conner

assessed in 84 unique Vitis subgenus Muscadinia genotypes. Linkage group location was based on previously published V. rotundifolia reference genetic maps ( Blanc et al., 2012 ; Riaz et al., 2012 ), except for markers VMC7g3, VVS2, VMC2a5, whose

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Patrick J. Conner, Gunawati Gunawan, and John R. Clark

The genus Vitis L. contains two subgenera, Euvitis (bunch grapes) and Muscadinia (muscadine grapes). Muscadinia consists of just three species: V. rotundifolia , the common muscadine grape known throughout the southeastern United States

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Patrick J. Conner and Dan MacLean

The genus Vitis L. contains two subgenera, Euvitis Planch. (bunch grapes) and Muscadinia (muscadine grapes). The Muscadinia subgenera consists of just three species: V. rotundifolia , the common muscadine grape known throughout the

Open access

Tekan S. Rana, Erick D. Smith, Cain Hickey, and Mark Hoffmann

The muscadine ( Vitis rotundifolia ) is a native grape to the southeastern United States and has been selectively bred for commercial wine and fresh-market production since the early 1800s ( Hickey et al., 2019 ; Hoffmann et al., 2020 ; Olien

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Patrick Conner, Joann Conner, Paige Catotti, Jennifer Lewter, John R. Clark, and Luiz A. Biasi

The genus Vitis L. contains two subgenera, Euvitis Planch. (bunch grapes) and Muscadinia Planch. (muscadine grapes). The Muscadinia consists of just three species: V. rotundifolia , the common muscadine grape known throughout the