1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; SmartFresh; AgroFresh, Spring House, PA) is used widely in the apple industry to control postharvest ripening and quality loss of apples in storage ( Fan et al., 1999 ; Watkins et al., 2000 ). The product is applied
Don C. Elfving, Stephen R. Drake, A. Nathan Reed, and Dwayne B. Visser
H.P. Vasantha Rupasinghe*, Dennis P. Murr, Jennifer R. DeEll, and Joseph Odumeru
Wounding during processing triggers physiological reactions that limits shelf-life of fresh-cut apples. Exposure of `Empire' and `Crispin' apples at harvest to the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, SmartFresh™) on the maintenance of fresh-cut apple quality was evaluated in combination with post-cut dipping of NatureSeal™. Efficacy of 1-MCP on fresh-cut physiology and quality depended on the storage duration and apple cultivar. Ethylene production and respiration of apple slices were inhibited by 1-MCP but not by NatureSeal. Total volatiles produced by fresh-cut apples was not affected by the treatments. 1-MCP influenced the quality attributes of fresh-cut apple slices prepared from apples stored either 4 months in cold storage or 6 months in controlled atmosphere. Enzymatic browning and softening of the cut-surface, total soluble solids, and total microbial growth were suppressed by 1-MCP in `Empire' apples. Overall, the influence of 1-MCP on quality attributes in `Crispin' apple slices was marginal. NatureSeal consistently maintained the firmness of fresh-cut apple slices held at 4 °C for up to 21 days. The additive effect of 1-MCP in the maintenance of apple quality is an advantage for processing and marketing of fresh-cut apples.
Jorge Siller-Cepeda, Manuel Baez-Sañudo, Rosalba Contreras-Martinez, Laura Contreras-Angulo, Rosabel Velez, and Dolores Muy-Rangel
Banana fruits `Cavendish' type were obtained from a warehouse at color green stage. At arrival, fruits were taken out of boxes, dipped into a thiabendazole solution for 5 minutes, dried at room temperature and separated into three lots. One lot was sprayed with Fresh Seal™ (FS) at 3 °Brix, a second lot was treated with Semper Fresh™ (SF) at 1.2%, and the third was left as a control. After that, all fruits were packed again inside the plastic bags within the original carton boxes. Film-coated and control fruits were ethylene treated for 24 hours at 150 ppm, and vented for 24 hours until they reached color 3 (more green than yellow). After that, film-coated and control fruit boxes were collected inside 238-L airtight containers to apply Smartfresh™ (SMF) treatments at 0 and 300 ppb for 12 hours at 22 °C, complementing six different treatments. Later, fruits were stored at 22 °C and 80% to 90% relative humidity for 5 days to follow up changes. Quality evaluations were registered every day, including weight loss, firmness, color, CO2, ethylene, pH, titratable acidity, °Brix, and sugar spots. SF alone and the combinations SF + SMF and FS + SMF reduced weight loss as compared with the other treatments. SMF alone or in combination with FS or SF maintained higher firmness and delayed yellow color development as compared with the other treatments. Combinations of SF or FS with SMF delayed and reduced the incidence of sugar spots as compared with control fruits. Chemical characteristics were not significantly affected by the treatments, but SF + SMF had higher acidity and a lower pH. All treatments reached between 20 and 21 °Brix after 5 days. The data show that combined treatments of SMF and film coatings reduce sugar spot incidence, improving appearance and extending yellow life of fruits.
Jiwon Jeong, James Lee, and Donald J. Huber
This study was performed to characterize the physiological responses of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit harvested at either 10% to 30% or 30% to 60% color change and treated with two forms of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Tomato fruit were treated either by submersion for 1 min in 1-MCP aqueous solution at the ambient temperature or by exposure for 12 h at 20 °C in air with 1-MCP gas, then stored at 20 °C. The concentrations (1.0, 5.0, or 10.0 μL·L-1) in 1-MCP aqueous solution were achieved through addition of 0.5, 2.5, or 5.0 g of AFxRD-300 powder (2.0% formulation, Agro-Fresh, Inc.) to 10 L of the de-ionized water, following manufacturer's instructions. 1-MCP (0.5 μL·L-1) gas in a 174-L container was achieved through addition of 0.22 g of SmartFresh® powder (0.14% formulation, Agro-Fresh, Inc.) to 100 mL of tap water. Both forms of 1-MCP significantly delayed ripening of fruit at the two initial ripeness stages, as noted by a significant delay in fruit softening and peel color change. The firmness of 30% to 60% color change tomatoes was significantly retained in response to gaseous or aqueous 1-MCP. Control fruit softened rapidly and reached the minimum marketable firmness value (about 5 N) within 8 days of storage at 20 °C, whereas fruit treated with gaseous 1-MCP (0.5 μL·L-1) or aqueous 1-MCP (1.0 or 5.0 μL·L-1) reached the same stage after 16, 20, or 24 days, respectively. Firmness retention was also highly significant for 10% to 30% color change tomatoes treated with both forms of 1-MCP. The highest concentration of aqueous 1-MCP (10.0 μL·L-1) did not result in a further delay in ripening compared with treatment at 5.0 or 1.0 μL·L-1 1-MCP.
Penelope M. Perkins-Veazie and Sylvia Blankenship
(SmartFresh, Spring House, PA), it has now been registered for use on many edible crops. Perhaps the most studied of these fruits are apples. Researchers in the United States and Canada have many cooperative studies on variety, temperature, and storage
Jennifer DeEll and Behrouz Ehsani-Moghaddam
1-MCP is an inhibitor of ethylene perception that can delay fruit ripening and extend storage life. 1-MCP is marketed as SmartFresh™ for postharvest treatment and its use has become common practice in many apple-growing regions. 1-MCP reduces
Steve J. McArtney, John D. Obermiller, James R. Schupp, Michael L. Parker, and Todd B. Edgington
formulation of 1-MCP (SmartFresh; AgroFresh, Spring House, PA) is a stable complex between 1-MCP and a cyclodextrin matrix that releases the a.i. as a gas when mixed with water or a buffered base ( Byers et al., 2005 ; Watkins, 2006b ). Exposure of fruit to 1
Jacqueline K. Burns
research trials, it is not yet commercially viable or registered for field use. Numerous challenges to commercial field application exist. 1-MCP is formulated as a wettable powder. The wettable powder is marketed as SmartFresh (AgroFresh; Rohm and Haas
Steven J. McArtney, John D. Obermiller, Tom Hoyt, and Michael L. Parker
; SmartFresh; AgroFresh Inc., Springhouse, PA). In the absence of ethylene, the ETR family of ethylene receptors directly activate CTR1, resulting in negative regulation of the ethylene response pathway. The activity of CTR1 is inhibited when ethylene binds
Christopher B. Watkins and Jacqueline F. Nock
recommendations for CA storage are available in Michigan, New York, or Ontario because of concern about susceptibility of fruit to CO 2 injury ( Tong and Mader, 2009 ). SmartFresh TM technology, based on the inhibitor of ethylene perception, 1-MCP can help