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J. Cuevas, L. Rallo, and H.F. Rapoport

We have compared reproductive processes and fruit set in Manzanillo and Frantoio olive cultivars which are reported in the literature respectively as incompatible and partially compatible. The same incompatibility reaction was observed in both cultivars. Pollen tube growth was almost completely inhibited beyond the stigma, but some degree of self-fertilization was accomplished. However, in both cultivars cross-pollination provided a earlier and higher level of fertilization. Differences in self-incompatibility behavior seemed related to the level and the amount of delay in self-fertilization. In the compatible variety, Frantoio, self-pollen tube growth was accomplished more rapidly and showed a higher level of self-fertilization than in the incompatible Manzanillo cultivar. Fruit set matched reproductive behavior.

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A. Fabbri, J.I. Hormaza, and V.S. Polito

We have been screening olive (Olea europea L.) cultivars using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. We examined 23 olive cultivars selected to represent the important olive-growing regions of the world. These include oil and table olive cultivars originating from throughout the Mediterranean area. A high degree of polymorphisms is evident in the olive germplasm we examined. Early results indicate that polymorphisms that exist within the species are sufficient to enable efficient development of RAPD markers for distinguishing olive cultivars.

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A. Belaj, Z. Satovic, L. Rallo, and I. Trujillo

The aim of this work was to study in depth the resolving power of RAPD markers for rapid and reliable identification of olive cultivars in germplasm collections. The D parameter (the probability that two randomly chosen cultivars have different banding patterns), used for that purpose, showed high values for most of the 21 primers tested and its values ranged from 0.6114 (OPI-13) to 0.9762 (OPK-16) with a mean value of 0.8566. This parameter was used to select the five most discriminating primers: OPK-16, OPA-19, OPX-09, OPF-06 and OPZ-11. The joint confusion probability and the statistical number of indistinguishable pairs of cultivars were estimated for these primers (under independence hypothesis). The combination of three primers (OPK-16, OPA-19 and OPX-09) was found optimal for rapid discrimination of 103 cultivars with a very low value of cumulative confusion probability (1.72 × 10-5), leaving 0.09 pairs of cultivars indistinguishable. This fact, together with the efficiency of the most discriminating primers combination on an increasing number of cultivars, evidenced the utility of RAPD markers for discrimination of olive cultivars in collections and in nurseries.

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Riccardo Gucci, Leonardo Lombardini, and Massimiliano Tattini

Water relation parameters were calculated from analysis of 92 pressure-volume isotherms of leaves of two olive varieties, `Leccino' and `Frantoio', measured after 4 weeks of salinity stress and 4 weeks of subsequent relief either in hydroponics or soil culture. `Frantoio' was more salt-tolerant than `Leccino', but no major differences in water relation parameters emerged between the two varieties. Increasing salinity from 0 to 200 mM NaCl decreased predawn leaf water potential from –0.5 MPa to –1.3 MPa, relative water content (RWC) from 97.6% to 89%, and leaf osmotic potential (Ψπ) from –2.0 to –3.5 MPa. Relative water content at turgor loss point (RWCtlp) was decreased from 89% to 85% (soil culture) and from 86% to 80% (hydroponic culture) in 0 to 200 mM CaCl-treated plants, respectively; a lower RWCtlp was also retained during the relief from salinity. Active osmotic adjustments induced by salinity was the result of accumulation of both inorganic ions and compatible solutes (e.g., mannitol). Maintenance of lower Ψπ and RWCtlp during relief indicated that salinized plants were better adapted to withstand further stress and that this potential might be exploited to harden olive plants to be used in arid or saline environments.

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Ana Centeno and María Gómez-del-Campo

Olive cuttings root well using synthetic auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). However, European and North American regulations do not allow the use of synthetic products to obtain organic vegetative propagation materials. In this work, we evaluated different products that could replace IBA in the propagation of olive cv. Cornicabra leafy-stem cuttings. In 2003, six products with a known auxin effect were assessed: IBA, algae extract, brewer's yeast, a bed of sunflower seed, seaweed dry extract (Sm-6 Organico™), and an extract of macerated seeds (Terrabal Organico™). The basal end of cuttings was treated with one of these products and placed on a mist bed with basal temperature control. After 2 months, rooting percentage, number of roots per cutting, number of cuttings with callus formation, and number of cuttings with basal thickening were determined. No significant differences were found in rooting percentage or number of roots per cutting between IBA and Terrabal Organico™ and Sm-6 Organico™. These last products had significantly higher percentage of rooted cuttings without callus formation than IBA. In 2004, a new trial was conducted in which seven treatments were evaluated: IBA applied for 7 s; Terrabal Organico™ applied for 1, 4, and 8 h; and Sm-6 Organico™ applied for 1, 4, and 8 h. No significant differences in rooting percentage or number of roots per cutting were observed between IBA and Terrabal Organico™ applied for 1 h, whereas all the Sm-6 Organico™ treatments had significantly lower rooting percentages than IBA. Both rooting percentage and the percentage of rooted cuttings without callus development decreased significantly as treatment duration with Terrabal Organico™ increased. Therefore, Terrabal Organico™ could produce a toxic effect on cuttings when treatment duration is increased. Thus, Terrabal Organico™ could be a valid alternative to IBA in the propagation of organic olive plants of cv. Cornicabra when applied to the basal end of cuttings for 1 h.

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Mahdi Fendri, Isabel Trujillo, Ahmed Trigui, María Isabel Rodríguez-García, and Juan de Dios Alché Ramírez

Olive ( Olea europaea L.) is one of the oldest cultivated species in the Mediterranean basin. Tunisia has played an important role in the establishment of the crop in this area as a result of its dynamic history and geographical location ( Trigui

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Arnon Dag, Smadar Boim, Yulya Sobotin, and Isaac Zipori

olives ( Olea europaea L.) under CO 2 atmosphere: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of indices related to changes in polyphenolic metabolism J. Agr. Food Chem. 54 2211 2217 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

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Bouchaib Khadari, Amal Zine El Aabidine, Cinderella Grout, Inès Ben Sadok, Agnès Doligez, Nathalie Moutier, Sylvain Santoni, and Evelyne Costes

. 2000 Cytoplasmic male sterility in the olive ( Olea europaea L.) Theor. Appl. Genet. 100 1018 1024 Brachet, S. Jubier, M.F. Richard, M. Jung-Muller, B. Frascaria-Lacoste, N. 1999 Rapid identification of microsatellite loci using 5′ anchored PCR in the

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Quan Liu, Yan Lan, Feng Tan, Yunbiao Tu, Yingying Sun, Gajue Yougu, Zeshen Yang, Chunbang Ding, and Tian Li

837 858 Cheng, Z. Zhan, M. Yang, Z. Zumstein, K. Chen, H. Huang, Q. 2017 The major qualitative characteristics of olive ( Olea europaea L.) cultivated in southwest China Front. Plant Sci. 8 559 doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00559 China Meteorological

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Raúl De la Rosa, Angjelina Belaj, Antonio Muñoz-Mérida, Oswaldo Trelles, Inmaculada Ortíz-Martín, Juan José González-Plaza, Victoriano Valpuesta, and Carmen R. Beuzón

incompatibility in Olea europaea L Phytomorphology 13 141 156 Breton, C.M. Bervillé, A. 2012 New hypothesis elucidates self-incompatibility in the olive tree regarding S-alleles dominance relationships as in the sporophytic model C. R. Biol. 335 563 572 Carriero