Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 69 items for :

  • Lycopersicon hirsutum x
  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All
Free access

T.J. Montagno, P.S. Jourdan, and S. Z. Berry

Unilateral incompatibility has limited the direction of crossing between L. esculentum and L. hirsutum; the latter can only serve as the pollen parent. In an attempt to introduce the L. hirsutum cytoplasm into L. esculentum, thirty-three somatic hybrid plants have been regenerated following four separate fusions between leaf protoplasts of L. hirsutum PI 126445 and etiolated hypocotyl protoplasts of L. esculentum (`OH7870', `OH832', and `OH8245'). A 33% PEG solution supplemented with 10% DMSO was used as the fusogen. Selection of fusion products was based on treatment of L. hirsutum protoplasts with 1 mM iodoacetic acid and non-regenerability of the L. esculentum genotypes. Hybridity was initially confirmed by intermediate morphology, including leaf shape, type of trichomes, flower shape, stigma placement, and fruit size and color. Isozyme analysis for GOT, PGM, and 6-PDH verified hybridity. Six of the hybrids produced viable seed upon selfing. At least some of the hybrids contained chloroplast DNA from L. hirsutum, indicating that the wild species cytoplasm may be present in these plants.

Free access

T.J. Montagno, S.Z. Berry, and P.S. Jourdan

L. hirsutum has been previously reported as recalcitrant to culture and plant regeneration. We have modified tomato protoplasm culture protocols and obtained high frequencies of plant regeneration from leaf protoplasts of L. hirsutum PI 126445, LA 94, and LA 1393, as well as from 8 interspecific hybrids of PI 126445 (male parent) with L. esculentum `Floradade', `Marglobe', `Tropic', `OH7870', `OH7983', `OH832', `OH8243', and `OH8245'. Protoplasts were isolated from 3-week old low light pretreated seedlings and cultured in modified LCM containing 1 mg/L NAA 0.5 m /L BA, and 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D. Cultures were kept in the dark at 30 C, diluted every 3 days with LCM containing only 0.75 mg/L BA and gradually moved to the light. After 2-3 weeks, colonies of 1-2 mm were transferred to solid MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.05 mg/L NAA. Calli containing dark green bud primordia were then placed on MS with 2% sucrose and 2 mg/L zeatin riboside for shoot production.

Free access

Sanford D. Eigenbrode and John T. Trumble

Four accessions of Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum Mull. and eight accessions of L. hirsutum f. typicum Humb. & Bonpl. were evaluated for their resistance to the beet armyworm [Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)]. Survival of S. exigua neonate larvae for up to 96 hours on foliage of all these accessions differed significantly from their survival on a susceptible tomato cultivar. Spodoptera exigua survival did not differ significantly between the two forms of L. hirsutum. Antibiosis to S. exigua in L. hirsutum f. glabratum appears similar to the levels found to other Lepidoptera. Accessions of L. hirsutum f. typicum included the very susceptible PI 199381 and the two most resistant accessions, LA 2329 and LA 1777. Insect resistance had not been reported previously in four of the L. hirsutum f. typicum accessions. Spodoptera exigua survival was significantly negatively correlated with the density of type IV glandular trichomes on the leaf surfaces, calculated across all 12 accessions. This relationship did not occur within L. hirsutum f. glabratumor L. hirsutum f. typicum accessions, nor was it significant if PI 199381 was excluded from the analysis. Leaf-surface exudates of L. hirsutum f. glabratum accessions were dominated by the methylketones 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone. Leaf-surface exudates of L. hirsutum f. typicum were dominated by three sesquiterpenes-zingiberene, δ elemene, and γ elemene. Resistance was not correlated with the amounts of these specific compounds within or across botanical form. Spodoptera exigua survival in L. hirsutum f. typicum (excluding PI 199381) correlated negatively with the total estimated amount of leaf-surface volatiles extracted. PI 199381 may be useful as a susceptible parent for intraspecific crosses to examine S. exigua resistance in L. hirsutum.

Free access

S.J. Scott, M. Stevens, and R.C. Gergerich

Seedlings of eight accessions of L. hirsutum and susceptible L. esculentum `VF Pink' controls were spray inoculated twice in the greenhouse with tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) Arkansas 85-9. Plants lacking symptoms were reinoculated, then evaluated for TSWV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Controls were consistently infected; sixty noninfected L. hirsutum were propagated by cuttings and inoculated with TSWV isolates T2 (lettuce), G-87 (gloxinia), 87-34 (tomato) and a mixture of the four isolates. All selections became infected in at least one test, but systemic infection was often delayed. Additional wild Lycopersicon species and numbers of accessions evaluated for resistance to TSWV include L. cheesmanii (9), L. chmielewskii (17), L. hirsutum (24), L. hirsutum f. glabratum (17), L. parviflorum (4) and L. pennellii (44). No new sources of strong resistance have been identified yet. Evaluation of additional species and accessions is continuing.

Free access

Zhenhua Guo and John C. Snyder

Choice and non-choice bioassays were used to examine deterrence in vitro and in vivo of Tetranychus urticae Koch. In vivo deterrence of leaflets from 11 Lycopersicon hirsutum accessions as well as the tomato cultivar `Ace 55' was measured as was in vitro deterrence of their leaf hexane extracts. Leaf surface chemistry was examined by gas chromatography. All 6 accessions of L. hirsutum f. hirsutum contained sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Each of these extracts also contained one or a few late eluting components. All were deterrent in vitro and 5 out of the 6 were deterrent in vivo. The one lacking in vivo deterrence had low density of type IV trichomes. All 5 accessions of L. hirsutum f. glabratum contained methyl ketones. These accessions were less deterrent in vitro and 4 out of the 5, less deterrent in vivo. The one accession having high in vivo deterrence also had high density of type IV trichomes. `Ace 55', having few hexane extractable compounds was neither deterrent in vitro nor in vivo. Within an accession, secretions from different types of trichomes shared similar chemical profiles and were similar to leaf profiles.

Free access

John R. Stommel

Sugar accumulation throughout fruit development in the cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and a wild green-fruited species (L. peruvianum) are being examined. Results obtained using HPLC demonstrate that the fruit of L. peruvianum accessions accumulate the disaccharide, sucrose, in addition to the monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, common to L. esculentum. When detectable, sucrose in the L. esculentum cultivar FM6203 was present at very low levels throughout development. Analysis of mature fruit of L. esculentum var. cerasiforme, L. pimpinellifolium, and L. cheesmanii accessions indicate glucose and fructose as the primary storage sugars. Similar to L. peruvianum, mature fruit of the green-fruited species, L. hirsutum f. typicum and L. hirsutum f. glabratum, accumulate sucrose in addition to glucose and fructose.

Free access

Majid R. Foolad, Arun Sharma, Hamid Ashrafi, and Guoyang Lin

Early blight (EB), caused by the fungus Alternaria solani, is a destructive disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) worldwide. Sources of genetic resistance have been identified within related wild species, including green-fruited L. hirsutum and red-fruited L. pimpinellifolium. We have employed traditional protocols of plant breeding and contemporary molecular markers technology to discern the genetic basis of EB resistance and develop tomatoes with improved resistance. Backcross breeding has resulted in the development of germplasm with improved resistance; however, linkage drag has been a major obstacle when using L. hirsutum as a donor parent. To identify and map QTLs for EB resistance, we used several filial and backcross populations derived from interspecific crosses between L. esculentum and either L. hirsutum or L. pimpinellifolium. In each population, an average of seven resistance QTLs were detected. While similar QTLs were detected in different generations of the same cross, generally different QTLs were identified in populations derived from different crosses. The results suggested stability of QTLs across environments and generations but variation in QTLs in different interspecific populations. It is expected that marker-assisted pyramiding of QTLs from different sources results in development of germplasm with strong and durable resistance. Further inspection of the results led to the identification and selection of six QTLs with stable and independent effects for use in marker–assisted selection (MAS). However, to facilitate “clean” transfer and pyramiding of these QTLs, near-isogenic lines (NILs) containing individual QTLs in a L. esculentum background should be developed.

Free access

Yuan-Hai Zhang and Lyle E. Craker

Air pollution may play a role in gametophytic selection. To estimate whether such selection was occurring, pollen grains from homozygous and heterozygous tomato plants were tested under pollution stress. Homozygous pollen could be expected to respond to pollution more uniformly than heterozygous due to the identical genotype of the pollen grains. Acid rain reduced pollen germination and tube elongation in Lycopersicon hirsutum LA1777 (heterozygous) and Lycopersicon pennellii LA716 (nearly homozygous). UV-B reduced tube length of the pollen from both plants, but ozone only reduced pollen tube length of L. pennellii. The responses of these two kinds of pollen to acid rain, ozone, and UV-B appears to be same in terms of heterozygosity and stress dosages, suggesting the reduction of pollen germination and tube elongation under pollution stress may be mediated through physiological or physical alterations and not a response of different genotypes.

Free access

Mark A. Walker, Dale M. Smith, K. Peter Pauls, and Bryan D. McKersie

The chilling tolerance of commercial Lycopersicon esculentum cultivars (H2653, H722), Solanum lycopersicoides, an F1 hybrid of S. lycopersicoides × Sub-Arctic Maxi, and 25 BC2F2 lines of L. hirsutum × H722 (backcrossed twice to H722) was evaluated using a chlorophyll fluorescence assay. The ratio of the initial to the peak fluorescence (Fo: Fp) measured from fully expanded leaves was chosen as an indicator of plant health. Chilling induced an increase in Fo: Fp that was correlated with the sensitivity of the plant to low-temperature stress. Values of Fo: Fp remained low for cold-treated S. lycopersicoides and the F1 hybrid, which showed few symptoms of chilling-related damage, whereas the commercial cultivars, which were essentially intolerant to low temperatures, had large increases in Fo: Fp. A full range of Fo: Fp values was measured in the 25 BC2F2 lines, indicating that some chilling tolerance from the L. hirsutum parent was expressed by plants in these populations.

Free access

V. Cruz, J. Cuartero, M.C. Bolarin, and M. Romero

Plant height; stem thickness; fresh and dry weights of leaves and stems; numbers of leaves, trusses, flowers, and fruits; and leaf concentrations of Cl, Na, N-NO3, K, Ca, and Mg were measured in mature plants from 39 tomato accessions representing five species of Lycopersicon [L. esculentum Mill., L. peruvianum (L.) Mill., L. pimpinellifoliurn (Jusl.) Mill., L. hirsutum H. & B., L. pennellii (Corr.) D'Arcy] in response to various NaCl concentrations. Plants were irrigated with a nutrient solution, plus one of four levels of NaCl with electrical conductivities of 0.28, 0.63, 1.39, and 2.15 S·m-1. Characters were evaluated for each genotype taking into consideration: 1) the significant differences between NaCl concentrations, 2) the experimental errors in the analyses of variance, and 3) the uniformity of response to the salt concentrations. The characters that fulfilled these criteria for all 39 genotypes were: plant height, dry weights of leaves, fresh and dry weights of stems, and leaf concentrations of Cl and Na. However, other characters, although not generally applicable to the entire data set, were good indicators of response differences within a particular species. Leaf concentrations of N-NO3 and Mg were useful indicators in L. pimpinellifolium and L. esculentum and number of leaves and leaf concentration of Mg were useful indicators in L. hirsutum for responses of mature plants to salt stress.