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Jens J. Brøndum and Royal D. Heins

Effects of temperature and photoperiod on growth rates and morphological development of Dahlia pinnata Cav. `Royal Dahlietta Yellow' were determined by growing plants under 45 combinations of day and night temperatures (DT and NT, respectively, and photoperiod. DT and NT ranged from 10 to 30C and photoperiods from 10 to 24 hours·day-1. Photoperiod influenced vegetative development more than reproductive development as plants flowered in all photoperiods. Lateral shoot count and length decreased and tuberous root weight increased as photoperiod decreased from 16 to 10 hours. Temperature interacted with photoperiod to greatly increase tuberous root formation as temperature decreased from 25 to 15C. Increasing temperature from 20 to 30C increased the number of nodes below the first flower. Flower count and diameter decreased as average daily temperature increased. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to estimate the maximum rate and the minimum, optimum, and maximum temperatures for leaf-pair unfolding rate (0.29 leaf pair/day, 5.5, 24.6, and 34.9C, respectively), flower development rate from pinch to visible bud (0.07 flower/day, 2.4, 22.4, and 31.1C, respectively), and flower development rate from visible bud to flower (0.054 flowers/day, 5.2, 24.4, and 31.1C, respectively). The results collectively indicate a relatively narrow set of conditions for optimal `Royal Dahlietta Yellow' dahlia flowering, with optimal defined as fast-developing plants with many large flower buds and satisfactory plant height. These conditions were a 12- to 14-hour photoperiod and ≈ 20C.

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Brian E. Whipker and P. Allen Hammer

Plant growth retardant (PGR) substrate drench treatments (mg a.i./1.5-L pot) of ancymidol at doses of 0.5 to 8, paclobutrazol from 1 to 16, and uniconazole from 0.125 to 2 were applied to tuberous-rooted dahlias (Dahlia variabilis Willd.) to compare their effectiveness for controlling height. When the first inflorescence opened, the number of days from potting until flowering, leaf canopy height, inflorescence height above the foliage, and plant diameter were recorded. Total height control achieved using PGRs was primarily due to reduced inflorescence height, rather than leaf canopy height. Paclobutrazol, ancymidol, and uniconazole at all doses reduced total plant height of the less-vigorous `Red Pigmy' by >21% compared to the untreated control, with a height of 43.5 cm for the untreated control plants. Marketable potted plants were produced with doses of 2 to 4 mg of paclobutrazol, 0.25 to 0.5 mg of uniconazole, or 0.5 mg of ancymidol. All paclobutrazol, ancymidol, and uniconazole doses reduced total plant height of the more-vigorous `Golden Emblem' by >11% compared to the untreated control, with a height of 82.1 cm for the untreated control. Marketable potted plants were produced with 4 to 8 mg of paclobutrazol, 0.5 to 1 mg of uniconazole, or 2 mg of ancymidol.

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Garry Legnani and William B. Miller

Experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of photoperiod on growth and dry-weight partitioning in Dahlia sp. `Sunny Rose' during both seedling (plug) production and subsequent production in 10-cm pots. Plugs were grown under short days [9-hour natural photosynthetic photon flux (PPF)] or long days (same 9-hour PPF plus a 4-hour night interruption with incandescent light). Total plant dry weight was unaffected by photoperiod; however, long days (LD) inhibited tuberous root development and increased shoot dry weight, fibrous root dry weight, leaf area, shoot length, and number of leaf pairs. Long days reduced plug production time by ≈1 week compared with short days (SD). Following transplanting to 10-cm pots, shoot growth and foliar development were superior under LD. There was no effect of photoperiod on foliar N concentration. The superior growth of LD plugs following transplanting can be attributed to the plant being in a physiological state conducive to shoot expansion instead of storage.

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Brian E. Whipker and P. Allen Hammer

Plant growth retardant (PGR) media drench treatments (in mg a.i./pot) of ancymidol at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0; paclobutrazol at 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, or 16.0; uniconazole at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 were applied to tuberous-rooted dahlias to compare their effectiveness as a chemical height control. All paclobutrazol, ancymidol, and uniconazole rates applied significantly reduced `Red Pigmy' plant height by 21% or greater compared to the nontreated control. Excessively short plants resulted from uniconazole and ancymidol drench rates ≥1.0 mg. `Red Pigmy', a less vigorous cultivar, were acceptable as potted-plants with paclobutrazol rates of 2.0 to 4.0 mg, 0.25 to 0.5 mg of uniconazole, or 0.5 mg of ancymidol. All paclobutrazol, ancymidol, and uniconazole rates significantly reduced `Golden Emblem' plant height by ≥11% when compared to the nontreated plants. Excessively short plants resulted from paclobutrazol drench rates of 16.0 mg, uniconazole rates of 2.0 mg and for ancymidol drenches ≥4.0 mg. `Golden Emblem', the more vigorous cultivar, were acceptable as potted-plants with paclobutrazol rates of 4.0 to 8.0 mg, 0.5 to 1.0 mg of uniconazole, or 2.0 mg of ancymidol.

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P. Gavinlertvatana, Paul E. Read, H. F. Wilkins, and R. Heins

Abstract

Biologically active levels of ethylene were accumulated in flask atmospheres of leaf segments and callus of dahlia cultured in vitro. The ethylene levels were dependent on concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-fur-furylamino purine (kinetin) in the medium. NAA promoted ethylene levels to a greater degree than kinetin. NAA at 1 mg liter, but not 5 or 10 mg liter, interacted with kinetin to stimulate ethylene synthesis. Reducing ethylene concentrations in the flasks by potassium permanganate absorption had no effect on callus formation from leaf tissue.

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Brian E. Whipker, Robert T. Eddy, and P. Allen Hammer

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Shravan Dasoju, Michael R. Evans, and Brian E. Whipker

Economics Expt. Sta. journal paper no. 17621. Project no. 3345 supported by Hatch Act and State of Iowa funds. Thanks to Benary Seed Co., Glen Ellyn, Ill. for supplying seed, Berbee Bulb Co, Marysville, OH for supplying dahlia tubers and Uniroyal Chemical Co

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Allison H. Justice, James E. Faust, and Julia L. Kerrigan

%, 10%, or 20% colonized perlite). Dahlia and lantana treatments consisted of noncolonized media, noncolonized media plus rooting hormone applied to the URCs, and media inoculations with each of three rates of P. indica (5%, 10%, or 20% colonized

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Daedre S. Craig and Erik S. Runkle

-cell (6 mL) plug trays and rooted cuttings of chrysanthemum ‘Adiva Purple’ and dahlia ‘Dahlinova Figaro Mix’ grown in 36-cell (32 mL) liner trays were received from a commercial greenhouse (C. Raker & Sons, Litchfield, MI). The young plants were

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Matthew G. Blanchard and Erik S. Runkle

United States, with different DIF regimens. Materials and Methods During Sept. 2008 (Year 1) and Mar. 2009 (Year 2), seeds of dahlia ( Dahlia × hybrida Cav. ‘Figaro Mix’), French marigold ( Tagetes patula L. ‘Janie Flame’), and zinnia ( Zinnia elegans