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W. Garrett Owen, Brian E. Jackson, William C. Fonteno, and Brian E. Whipker

substrates, other variables, including chemical composition, particle size, and hardness ( Argo and Fisher, 2002 ), should be considered. Increased interest in using substrates containing pine wood components has led to many unanswered questions about their

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Jeb S. Fields, William C. Fonteno, Brian E. Jackson, Joshua L. Heitman, and James S. Owen Jr.

components with perlite in substrate mixes in different container sizes. Materials and Methods Substrate preparation. Two components were manufactured from pine wood to have different physical characteristics. Pine wood chips were created as follows: loblolly

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James E. Altland and Charles R. Krause

mulch, and as a source for extracting biochemicals. Pine bark is primarily generated as a byproduct in the forest products industries, in which trees are debarked for the purpose of obtaining clean wood. The price for PB at any given time is dependent on

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Crysta N. Harris, Ryan W. Dickson, Paul R. Fisher, Brian E. Jackson, and Anissa M. Poleatewich

Soilless substrates containing wood fiber are increasingly being used for the production of containerized floriculture crops in the United States. This is partially a result of increasing concerns regarding the environmental sustainability of

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Edward F. Gilman, Thomas H. Yeager, and Diane Weigle

Columns (4 × 15 cm) of incubated (25C, 7% volumetric moisture) milled cypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) L. Rich] wood chips received 180 mg of each ionic form of N applied to the surface from dry NH4NO3, KNO3, or (NH4)2SO4 and were leached daily with 16 ml deionized water (pH 5.5). After 10 days, >85% of applied N leached from the columns in all treatments. After 25 days, all N leached from the NH4NO3 and KNO3 treatments, and 93% leached from the (NH4)2SO4 treatment. In subsequent experiments, columns received 360 mg N from NH4NO3 and were leached daily with either 16, 32, 48, or 64 ml of deionized water for 50 days. The rate of N leaching increased with increasing water application rate, although total N leached per column was similar for all water rates after 25 days. Columns that received 45, 90, 180, or 360 mg N/column were leached daily with 16 ml of deionized water. Nitrogen concentrations in the leachate ranged from 3406 ppm \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} and 2965 ppm \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{4}^{+}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} at day 5 for the 360-mg rate to 3 and 5 ppm, respectively, at day 35 for the 45-mg rate. In all experiments with NH4NO3, more \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} leached than \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{4}^{+}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} and more \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} leached than applied, indicating vitrification occurred. \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{4}^{+}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} and \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} broadcast over cypress wood chips in the landscape would leach quickly into the soil.

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Julian C. Crane and I. Al-Shalan


The pistachio (Pistacia vera L.), characteristically a biennial bearer, produces its most extensive shoot growth in years of heavy crop production. Whereas levels of total sugars in bark and wood of bearing and nonbearing branches were similar throughout the year, starch levels tended generally to be higher in nonbearing than in bearing branches. Consequently, nonbearing branches one year gave rise to heavy crops the next and, beacuse of greater quantities of reserve foods, also produced extensive shoot growth. Bearing branches of that same year, .however, produced few or no nuts the next and, because of lesser quantities of reserve foods, produced markedly less shoot growth. No relationship between total nitrogen level and shoot growth or fruiting was evident.

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S. Christopher Marble, Shawn T. Steed, Debalina Saha, and Yuvraj Khamare

. Similarly, Bartley et al. (2017) reported 90% to 100% control for more than 3 months with three different wood-derived mulches. Weed discs, plastic bags ( Chong, 2003 ), rice ( Oryza sativa ) hulls ( Altland et al., 2016 ), pelletized shredded newspaper

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Ryan W. Dickson, Kalyn M. Helms, Brian E. Jackson, Leala M. Machesney, and Jung Ae Lee

Pine wood components are increasingly being used in soilless substrates to produce floriculture crops in the United States, particularly as a substitute for peat and perlite ( Drotleff, 2018 ; Harris et al., 2020 ). Sphagnum peatmoss is the major

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Jaroslav Ďurkovič, František Kačík, Miroslava Mamoňová, Monika Kardošová, Roman Longauer, and Jana Krajňáková

units determine the type and number of crosslinks. The physical relationship between holocellulose and lignin affects many fiber characteristics. Variation in the chemical content of wood is generally influenced by the interaction of developmental

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and Michael C. Barnes

that are chipped and ground (with or without bark, limbs, needles, and so on) in a hammermill or from clean chip residual (CCR: ≈40% pine wood, 50% bark, and 10% needles), which is produced from byproducts of the pine tree-harvesting process ( Boyer et