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Janelle E. Glady, N. Suzanne Lang, and Erik S. Runkle

number of vegetative cuttings (VC), number of cuttings with floral buds (reproductive cuttings [RC]), and cutting DW were recorded at each cutting harvest event. The total number of cuttings per treatment was then calculated. Cutting quality was observed

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Phillip A. Wadl, Timothy A. Rinehart, Adam J. Dattilo, Mark Pistrang, Lisa M. Vito, Ryan Milstead, and Robert N. Trigiano

vegetatively growing, 84.8% rooted compared with 5.4% of the stems that were collected from plants that were flowering. The effects of rooting medium in rooting of vegetative cuttings was highly significant ( P < 0.0001). None of the cuttings rooted when they

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Desmond G. Mortley, Conrad K. Bonsi, Walter A. Hill, Carlton E. Morris, Carol S. Williams, Ceyla F. Davis, John W. Williams, Lanfang H. Levine, Barbara V. Petersen, and Raymond M. Wheeler

flight environment had no negative effect on the ability of vegetative cuttings to form roots and that use of cuttings should be an acceptable means for propagating sweetpotato for future space applications. There was a substantial accumulation of

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James E. Faust and Royal D. Heins

Dendranthema ×grandiflorm (Ramat.) Kitamura `Powerhouse' plants were pinched to five nodes and grown in growth chambers at 35C day temperature (DT) and 14,17,21,24, or 27C night temperature (NT) to determine if NT influenced lateral shoot development on plants exposed to high DT. Vegetative cuttings were removed from two successive flushes of lateral shoots and evaluated for lateral shoot development after rooting and subsequent apex removal. Lateral shoot development was determined on a third flush of shoots that developed on the stock plants. The percentage of nodes that developed lateral shoots on stock plants or vegetative cuttings was not related to NT. The percentage of first-order, second-order, and third-order axillary nodes that developed a lateral shoot on the stock plants, averaged over all NT, was 76, 65, and 12, respectively. The percentage of nodes that developed lateral shoots on the first-order and second-order cuttings was 29 and 19, respectively. We concluded that cool NT were ineffective in preventing a decrease in lateral branching on plants grown under high (35C) DT conditions.

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Maureen M.M. Fitch, Paul H. Moore, Terryl C.W. Leong, Leslie Ann Y. Akashi, Aileen K.F. Yeh, Susan A. White, Amy S. Dela Cruz, Lance T. Santo, Stephen A. Ferreira, and Leslie J. Poland

Papaya seedlings segregate for sex expression as females or hermaphrodites. Typically only hermaphrodite fruit are marketed in Hawaii. The agronomic practice of growing multiple seedlings that are later thinned to a single hermaphrodite tree is wasteful of seed, labor, and resources, especially when seed is costly. We compared growth of plants propagated by the clonal methods of micropropagation or rooting vegetative cuttings versus plants initiated as seedlings and transplanted. The seedlings were either single-planted hermaphrodites as identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or multiple-planted, thinned seedlings. The experiments were carried out in three different locations on two islands in Hawaii. Clonally propagated plants were significantly shorter than seedlings and bore flowers earlier and lower on the trunk at all locations. Stem diameter differences were not significant even though plant size was different at planting time. Percentage of trees in bud varied significantly in the third month after transplanting when about 90% of the rooted cuttings and large micropropagated plants had formed flower buds while only one multiple-planted seedling developed a bud. Overall, the clonally propagated plants were more vigorous and earlier bearing than were the seedling plants. There is good potential for adoption of clonal propagation when production becomes efficient enough to compete in price with the current practice of over planting and thinning.

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J. Raymond Kessler Jr. and Gary J. Keever

Vegetative cuttings of Coreopsis verticillata `Moonbeam' were rooted under intermittent mist, pinched, and potted into 10-cm pots in a greenhouse. Plants were sheared to 6.5 cm above the pot rim 2 weeks after potting and given foliar sprays of daminozide at 0, 2550, 5100, or 7650 mg·L-1 or flurprimidol at 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg·L-1. Night-break lighting to provide long photoperiods was started the day of shearing. Growth retardants were applied at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 days after shearing. Daminozide reduced shoot height, growth index, and lateral shoot length compared to the control by 69.3%, 69.2%, and 70.0%, respectively, while increasing quality rating by 67.3% and time to flower by 8 days at 5100 and 7650 mg·L-1. Response surface regression predicted that minimum plant size and maximum quality rating occurred when growth retardants were applied 5.7 to 8.3 days after shearing. Application timing had no effect on responses to flurprimidol. Shoot height, growth index, and lateral shoot length decreased quadratically with increasing rate while quality rating only improved compared to control. Flurprimidol did not cause a flowering delay.

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Sonali Padhye, Erik S. Runkle, and Arthur Cameron

Coreopsis grandiflora `Sunray' has been reported to flower under long days (LD) following vernalization or short days (SD). The objectives of this study were to characterize the effective duration of vernalization and SD and to determine if photoperiod during vernalization influences flowering. Vegetative cuttings taken from stockplants developed from one seedling were rooted for 2 weeks and grown for 5 weeks. Plants were provided with a 9-hour photoperiod for 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks or were vernalized at 5 °C under a 16-hour photoperiod for 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks or under a 9-hour photoperiod for 2 or 8 weeks. Following treatments, plants were grown in a greenhouse at 20 °C under a 16-hour photoperiod. Control plants were grown under constant 9- or 16-hour photoperiod. Leaf development, days to first visible bud (DVB), days to first open flower (DFLW), and height and total number of flower buds at FLW were recorded. No plants flowered under continuous SD. Under continuous LD, two plants flowered on axillary shoots but only after 95 days. All vernalized and SD-treated plants flowered on both terminal and axillary shoots. Photoperiod during vernalization did not affect subsequent flowering. DFLW decreased from 56 to 42 and from 50 to 42 after 2 to 8 weeks of vernalization and SD treatments, respectively. Following 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of vernalization, plants had 116, 116, 132, and 204 flower buds, respectively. Plant height at FLW of all SD-treated and vernalized plants was similar. Thus, 2 weeks of 9-hour SD or vernalization at 5 °C followed by LD was sufficient for flowering of our clone of C.`Sunray', although longer durations hastened flowering and increased flower bud number.

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Jacqueline K. Burns, Luis V. Pozo, Rongcai Yuan, and Brandon Hockema

Guanfacine and clonidine were combined with ethephon or metsulfuron-methyl in the spray tank and applied as foliar sprays to Citrus sinensis L. Osb. `Valencia', Citrus madurensis Loureiro (calamondin), and Prunus persica `Elberta' to determine their effects on leaf loss, fruit detachment force (FDF), immature fruit loss, and twig dieback. In `Valencia' orange, `Elberta' peach and calamondin, guanfacine and clonidine effectively reduced ethephon-induced defoliation in all three tree species, whereas only guanfacine was effective with metsulfuron-methyl applications in `Valencia'. The ability of ethephon to reduce FDF in `Valencia' was only minimally impaired by guanfacine but not impaired by clonidine. Both guanfacine and clonidine diminished the capacity of metsulfuron-methyl to reduce FDF. Guanfacine reduced immature fruit loss of `Valencia' caused by metsulfuron-methyl and reduced twig-dieback. Leaf loss was reduced whether guanfacine or clonidine were applied with ethephon, or 24 hours or 17 days before ethephon application. Guanfacine and clonidine reduced leaf loss induced by continuous exposure of potted calamondin trees to ethylene, and leaf loss was similar with guanfacine and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments. In separate experiments, guanfacine and clonidine were unable to block ethylene perception in Arabidopsis seedlings and petunia flowers but promoted rooting in coleus and tomato vegetative cuttings, suggesting that these compounds have auxin-like activity. The results demonstrate the potential to enhance selectivity of abscission agents with guanfacine and clonidine. Chemical names used: 2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino]-2-imidazoline, clonidine; 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-pyrazole, CMN-P; [(2,6-dichlorophenyl)acetyl]guanidine, guanfacine; [(2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid, ethephon; indole-3-butyric acid, IBA; 1-methylcyclopropene, 1-MCP.

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Smiljana Goreta, Lovre Bucan, Gvozden Dumicic, and Daniel I. Leskovar

Globe artichoke is a native crop of the Mediterranean region with about 80% worldwide production. It is estimated that about 3,000 ha are grown in the U.S., mostly in California. Artichoke crop can be grown as a perennial, by vegetative cuttings, or as annual by seeds. Crop production can be limited by freezing winter temperatures leading to irreversible plant damage or by high summer temperatures causing poor head quality. Successful artichokes production, particularly in areas with constraining climatic conditions, requires proper selection of cultivars and planting dates. Cultivars with low vernalization requirements are more prone to a short growing season. The application of GA3 to overcome the lack of low temperatures and fulfill the vernalization requirements of early cultivars is well known. The goal of this multi-year project is to select production strategies contributing to earliness, extension of harvesting period, and improved yield and head quality under a variety of environmental conditions in Croatia and Texas. Selecting cultivars with different maturity groups and planting dates enabled harvesting period from autumn to late spring depending on locations. When GA3 was applied (12.5 to 125 ppm) on a naturally vernalized crop from autumn planting, early yield was substantially increased without affecting earliness. Conversely, application of GA3 (30 or 45 ppm) on nonvernalized plants established during late spring or summer was necessary for fall harvest in the Croatian locations. Head quality evaluated as head weight and size, or crude protein and total fiber concentration, progressively decreased during late spring harvest in Texas. Shifting the harvesting period towards early spring may be essential for improving head quality and for increasing the market share. To achieve adequate yields, longer harvesting period, and superior head quality, it is necessary to develop and adjust cultural practices for the specific growing area.

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David G. Clark, Chris Dervinis, James E. Barrett, Harry Klee, and Michelle Jones

Cytokinins have been shown to delay the onset of leaf senescence. The focus of this project was to produce transgenic petunia (Petunia ×hybrida) plants that over-produced endogenous cytokinins in a senescence specific manner. This was achieved by transforming plants with the IPT (isopentenyl transferase) gene driven by the senescence-associated transcriptional promoter, PSAG12. Two independent transgenic events produced T1 and T2 generation seedling lines that demonstrated the desired nonsenescent phenotype in progeny trials. These lines were used to evaluate the horticultural performance of PSAG12-IPT petunia plants in terms of delayed senescence, rooting of vegetative cuttings, lateral branch growth, flower number, floral timing, and fruit set. Although both lines displayed a delayed senescence phenotype the two PSAG12-IPT transgenic lines differed from each other in regard to other horticultural traits. In addition to delayed leaf senescence, line I-1-7 also demonstrated a decrease in adventitious rooting and an increased number of branches during plant production. Line I-3-18 also demonstrated a delayed leaf senescence phenotype; however, plants of this line were not greatly altered in any other horticultural performance traits in comparison to wild-type `V26'. IPT transcript was detected in young fully expanded leaves of both lines, although mRNA levels were higher in I-1-7 plants. A greater than 50-fold increase in IPT transcript abundance was detected in leaves of transgenic plants following drought stress. These results demonstrate that it is possible to use PSAG12-IPT to produce transgenic plants with delayed leaf senescence but differences in plant morphology between transgenic lines exist, which may alter horticultural performance characteristics.