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Sin-Ae Park, Moon-Kyoung Cho, Mung Hwa Yoo, Soo-Yun Kim, Eun-Ae Im, Jong-Eun Song, Jin-Cheol Lee, and In Gun Jun

The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a horticultural activity program on the emotional intelligence, prosocial behavior, and scientific investigation abilities and attitudes of kindergarteners. A total of 336 children aged 5 to 7 years in public and private kindergartens and day care centers in Incheon, South Korea, participated in a 24-session horticultural activity program. This program included indoor and outdoor activities such as planting seeds, transplanting plants, making and applying eco-friendly fertilizer, watering, harvesting, using plants to make crafts, and cooking with produce. It was designed to improve the emotional intelligence, prosocial behavior, and scientific investigation abilities and attitudes of kindergarteners. Each session lasted an average of 50 minutes and was held once per week. The results of the study showed that the 24-session horticultural activity program improved the emotional intelligence, prosocial behavior, and scientific investigation abilities and attitudes of the children (P < 0.05). Satisfaction with the program was very high among both the children and their teachers and parents. Future studies should consider exploring the effects of horticultural activity programs on children in different age groups.

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Mary Rogers, Illana Livstrom, Brandon Roiger, and Amy Smith

attitudes toward and preferences for these foods ( Heim et al., 2009 ). In urban areas, this can be achieved through schoolyard and community gardens. There is growing interest in the benefits of urban agriculture for youth education as evidenced by the

Open access

Roland Ebel

. For. Meteorol. 112 179 193 Losada, H. Martinez, H. Vieyra, J. Pealing, R. Zavala, R. Cortés, J. 1998 Urban agriculture in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City: Changes over time in urban, suburban and peri-urban areas Environ. Urban. 10 37 54 Mae, F

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Esther McGinnis, Alicia Rihn, Natalie Bumgarner, Sarada Krishnan, Jourdan Cole, Casey Sclar, and Hayk Khachatryan

, sustainable, local, green, urban agriculture, and succulent. More consumer behavior research is needed in this area to identify attractive terminology for millennials. Social media outreach Jourdan Cole, Account Executive for Garden Media Group, noted that CH

Free access

Prem Nath

The world produces adequate food for everyone, but unequal distribution has created a gap between the countries that produce more food than they consume and those countries with deficit production. About 815 million people suffer from hunger and malnutrition, mostly in the developing world. By 2020, the developing world is expected to face the overwhelming challenge of a 97.5% increase in population; moreover, developing countries will face serious challenges with the trend of a major shift in population from rural to urban areas, where 52% of the people will live in megacities—all asking for more food, land, and infrastructure. According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 334 million children in developing countries are malnourished. In 2020, one out of every four children in these countries will still be malnourished. It is recognized that modern agriculture must diversify production and achieve sustainable higher output to supplement food security. In order to reduce pressure on cereals as well as to improve human nutrition through the consumption of other nutritious crops, diversification in cropping patterns can provide better options. The increased production and consumption of fruits and vegetables, with their wide adaptation and providers of important nutrients (especially vitamins and minerals), offer promise for the future. Fruits and vegetables as food and diet supplements are gaining momentum in most countries. In addition, recent experimental evidence has shown the growing importance of fruits and vegetables in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases. Further, horticulture would play an important role in urban and peri-urban agriculture and development.

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Chin H. Ma and Manuel C. Palada

High levels of N fertilizers are generally applied in intensive leafy vegetable production in the peri-urban agriculture of Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to develop a simple and rapid method of determining nitrate-N accumulation in selected leafy vegetables. Five leafy vegetables, including amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor), kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica), Ethiopian kale (Brassica carinata), choysum (Brassica campestris sp. parachinensis), and leafy lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were grown on raised beds in 32-mesh nethouse in randomized complete-block design with four replications. The crops were fertilized with eight N levels: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 kg·ha-1 in three splits. At harvest, nitrate contents were determined in tissue sap of fully expanded leaf blades, petioles and whole plant using a Cardy nitrate meter. Chlorophyll content readings were also measured on the same leaf using a chlorophyll meter. Nitrate accumulations varied with vegetable species. Significant correlations (P< 0.001) existed between N fertilizer rate and nitrate content as well as leaf chlorophyll and yield. Using N application rate of 200 kg·ha-1, nitrate accumulation in Ethiopian kale was highest (7000 ppm), followed by kangkong (4000 ppm), amaranth (3500 ppm), and leafy lettuce (1200 ppm). The correlation between leaf chlorophyll meter reading (LCMR) and nitrate content was also significant (P< 0.001), suggesting the feasibility of using Cardy nitrate meter test and LCMR for monitoring production of low-nitrate and safe vegetables. The Cardy meter was also sensitive in detecting soil nitrate-N below 20 ppm and is a rapid and reliable alternative to conventional distillation method.

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Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, Catherine M. Grieve, James Poss, and Donald A. Layfield

Scarcity of good-quality water for landscape irrigation is a major concern in arid and semiarid regions as a result of the competition with the urban population. Competing claims from urban, agricultural, environmental, and industrial groups leaves less water or water of lower quality for use in landscape maintenance. Although degraded waters, high in both salinity and alkaline pH, may challenge plant establishment and growth, these waters must be considered as valuable alternatives to the use of fresh water resources for landscape sites. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of irrigation with saline water, with and without pH control, on the mineral ion relations of three marigold cultivars: Flagstaff, Yellow Climax, and French Vanilla. Treatments were five electrical conductivities of irrigation water (ECw): 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 dS·m−1, and two pH levels: 6.4 and 7.8. Plants of ‘French Vanilla’ and flowering stems of ‘Flagstaff’ and ‘Yellow Climax’ were harvested at flower maturity. Leaves of the taller cultivars, Flagstaff and Yellow Climax, were collected separately from the main axis and from the lateral stems, whereas in ‘French Vanilla’, leaves were combined. Total sulfur, total phosphorus, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl, Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+ concentrations in leaf and stem tissues were determined. The three marigold cultivars were strong Ca2+-accumulators and this response was more evident at the lower pH level. However, leaf Ca2+ tended to decrease as salinity increased despite a threefold increase in substrate Ca2+. Leaf Mg2+ increased as salinity increased and main stem leaves of the taller cultivars accumulated more Mg2+ than leaves on the lateral branches. The reverse was true for leaf K+; leaves on the lateral branches were stronger K+-accumulators than those on the main stem. Potassium concentrations in leaves of marigold irrigated with waters at pH 6.4 tended to decrease as ECw increased. Marigold seems to possess an efficient Na+ exclusion mechanism, which restricts Na+ accumulation in the leaves. Patterns of total phosphorus accumulation in leaf tissues were not consistent over the range of ECw treatments. Among the micronutrients, Fe2+ and Mn2+ tended to be partitioned to the younger rather than the older leaves. The decrease in marigold growth was associated with nutrient ion imbalance as demonstrated by the reduction in K+ concentration and the increase in Mg2+ and Cl in leaf tissue. Despite the reduction in growth, the aesthetic value of the cultivars was not detrimentally affected by application of saline waters with ECw values as high as 8 dS·m−1.

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systems. Urban Agriculture Survey of Korean Students Lee et al. (p. 783) developed a 21-item questionnaire answered by 1268 Korean elementary school students. More than 73.7% of the students reported having an awareness of and need for urban agriculture

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Allen V. Barker

conflict of urban agriculture to city dwellers in Austin,Texas, is presented. Chapter 10, Volunteerism, discusses the importance of volunteers in any organization and specifically to urban horticultural programs of public gardens, zoos, amusement parks

Open access

Lucy K. Bradley, Ellen M. Bauske, Thomas A. Bewick, John R. Clark, Richard. E. Durham, Gail Langellotto, Mary H. Meyer, Margaret Pooler, and Sheri Dorn

volunteers, and administration. The steering committee consisted of 13 members; it was small enough to reach consensus and yet as diverse as practical. The members included Dr. Ellen Bauske (The Georgia Center for Urban Agriculture, University of Georgia