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Alicain S. Carlson, John M. Dole, and Brian E. Whipker

hybrids) ( Whipker et al., 2011a ). Substrate drenches of flurprimidol and paclobutrazol did not affect flower height of amaryllis ( Hippeastrum ) and paclobutrazol and uniconazole reduced leaf length ( Miller et al., 2013 ). Plant growth regulators may

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James E. Barrett, Carolyn A. Bartuska, and Terril A. Nell

Four experiments using container-grown Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura `Nob Hill' or `Tara' were conducted to determine effects of application site and spray volume on uniconazole efficacy. Uniconazole applied only to mature leaves was less effective in controlling stem elongation than were stem applications, whole-plant sprays, or medium drenches. Spray volume altered efficacy more for uniconazole than for daminozide. Also, the effect of uniconazole spray volume was greater when the medium was not covered than when covered to prevent spray solution entering medium. Results from these studies showed the efficacy of uniconazole increased with increased stem coverage and with amount of chemical reaching the medium, which was achieved with high spray volumes. Chemical names used: (E)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl-1-penten-3-ol) (uniconazole); butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide).

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Shinsuke Agehara and Daniel I. Leskovar

). Uniconazole is a plant growth retardant used in commercial ornamental plug production to improve plant compactness, marketable value, and shelf life ( Currey and Lopez, 2010 ). The mode of action involves inhibition of gibberellin biosynthesis, which in turn

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Christopher J. Currey and John E. Erwin

, 10, or 20 ppm uniconazole (Concise, Fine Americas). Concentrations of each a.i. were selected to span published recommended ranges commonly used for foliar applications in flowering potted plant production ( Dole and Wilkins, 2005 ; Whipker et al

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Mengzi Zhang, Jie Yang, Huitang Pan, and Brian J. Pearson

). Chlormequat chloride and uniconazole (UNI) have been successfully used in floriculture as a drench or foliar spray ( Rademacher, 1995 ). Chlormequat chloride was first found to inhibit stem elongation, increase stem thickness, and enhance leaf greenness of

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Terri Woods Starman

One and two foliar spray and single-drench applications of uniconazole were applied to Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn (lisianthus) `Yodel Blue' to determine optimal concentrations for potted plant height control. A single uniconazole spray at 10.0 mg·liter-1 applied 2 weeks after pinching, two uniconazole applications at 5.0 mg·liter -1 applied 2 and 3 weeks after pinching, or a drench at 1.60 mg a.i. per pot applied 2 weeks after pinching gave equally good height control. At these concentrations, uniconazole was similar in its effect on plant height to daminozide foliar sprays at 7500 and 2500 mg·liter-l applied once and twice, respectively. Drenching with uniconazole at 1.60 mg a.i. per pot did not increase days to flower (DTF), whereas foliar spray applications did. Drenching did not reduce flower size, but increased flower number at time of harvest. Chemical names used: α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol); butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide);(E)-(S)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-pent-1-ene-3-01 (uniconazole).

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Amir Rezazadeh and Richard L. Harkess

( Rademacher, 2000 ). Several growth retardants are currently recommended for controlling height of floriculture crops. Triazoles, including uniconazole and paclobutrazol, are one of the largest commercially used groups of PGRs to control plant height and

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Helen E. Hammond, Richard K. Schoellhorn, Sandra B. Wilson, and Jeffrey G. Norcini

daminozide, daminozide/chlormequat chloride, and paclobutrazol, two other commonly used chemical growth retardants are uniconazole (Sumagic; Valent USA Corp., Walnut Creek, CA) and Ethephon (Florel; Southern Agricultural Insecticides, Palmetto, FL). Similarly

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Gary J. Keever and Mark S. West

Uniconazole was applied once as a soil drench (15, 30, or 45 mg a.i./plant) or foliar spray (500, 1000, or 1500 mg liter-1, about 175 ml/plant) to established, field-grown thorny elaeagnus (Elaeagnus pungens Thunb. Fruitlandii) and leyland cypress [× Cupressocyparis leylandii (A.B. Jacks. & Dallim.) Dallim. & A.B. Jacks]. At the end of the second growing season following treatment, shoot dry weights (SDW) of thorny elaeagnus decreased with increasing rates of drench-applied uniconazole, while SDW of plants receiving the foliar application were not affected by increasing rates. Growth indices of leyland cypress, determined twice during the first growing season and at the end of the second growing season, were not influenced by application method or rate. Uniconazole applied as a soil drench at 15 to 45 mg a.i./plant suppressed growth of established thorny elaeagnus for at least two growing seasons, but leyland cypress was not affected by uniconazole drench or foliar spray at tested rates. No phytotoxicity was observed on either species in any treatment during the experiment.

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Amir Rezazadeh, Richard L. Harkess, and Guihong Bi

and concentration for consistent results. Several PGRs effectively inhibit stem elongation of ornamental plants and influence the time of flowering. The triazole class of PGRs, including flurprimidol, uniconazole, and paclobutrazol, are one of the