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Renee H. Harkins, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla

the plants and then only mowed or removed just before fruit harvest. Trailing blackberry is a perennial crop, but like other caneberry species, the shoots or canes of the plant are biennial. Vegetative canes, referred to as primocanes, emerge from the

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Emily K. Dixon, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla

of trailing blackberry fruit production ( Harkins et al., 2014 ). The nutrient content of different blackberry plant parts and nutrients other than N have only been examined during the establishment years ( Harkins et al., 2014 ), but not during

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Juliet Mann and Bernadine C. Strik

Mature `Kotata' and `Marion' trailing blackberry plants were studied in 1994. In `Kotata', canes were subjected to 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% primary bud removal in Feb. 1994. In `Marion' 0, 55, or 100 primary buds were removed per dm2 from fruiting sections (panels). Primary bud removal did not subsequently affect yield per cane or per dm2 in either cultivar. Yield compensation occurred through production of secondary laterals, which were as fruitful as primary laterals.

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Angela K. Anderson and Chad E. Finn

The superb flavor of trailing blackberry cultivars, such as `Marion', is derived from Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schlecht. Wild R. ursinus offer a range of horticulturally desirable traits to breeders, from high fruit quality to improved cold hardiness. Current cultivars are derived from relatively few sources of R. ursinus, selected primarily for fruiting characteristics. A replicated field trial of 460 clones, representing 20 populations from southern British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon, was established in 1994. Observations during the planting year have indicated that monitoring variability in the following reproductive traits will be useful in assessing diversity; budbreak, flowering, and fruiting date; lateral length; proportion of reproductive laterals; gender; flower and fruit number; and fruit size. In particular, there are clones that exhibit large fruit size (4 to 5 g), high flower number per lateral, and uniform fruit set. Analysis of these data will contribute to determination of relative genetic distances among the populations and enhance the understanding of the diversity available in R. ursinus.

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Angela K. Anderson and Chad E. Finn

Trailing blackberry cultivars, such as `Marion', can be traced to relatively few chance selections of Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schlecht. Wild R. ursinus offer a range of horticulturally desirable traits to breeders, from high fruit quality to improved cold hardiness. Cuttings from 460 plants, representing 20 populations in southern British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon, collected in 1993. Rooted clones were planted in 1994 in a replicated field trial to assess morphological variation. A greenhouse study was also undertaken, with 10 clones represented from each site, in two replications. Preliminary data from the greenhouse and field studies show variability in the following morphological characters: Glandular hairs; cane and prickle color; cane diameter; prickle density; internode length; leaf color, size, shape and density; and senescent leaf drop and color change. Floricane morphology will be assessed in 1995. Analysis of these data will determine relative genetic distances among the populations and enhance the understanding of the diversity available in R. ursinus.

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Neil C. Bell, Bernadine C. Strik, and Lloyd W. Martin

Primocanes of `Marion' trailing blackberry plants were suppressed by cutting them off at ground level in either late April, May, June, or July 1991 and 1992. An unsuppressed control was included in which primocanes were not cut. A single cane was removed from each replication of the five primocane suppression dates at monthly intervals from mid-November to mid-February 1991-92, and from mid-November to mid-January 1992-93. One-node samples were exposed to controlled freezing at temperatures of 4, -6, -9, -12, -15, and -18C in November through February. In December and January, the-6 temperature was replaced with-21C. After 5 days at room temperature following freezing, growing point, budbase, vascular, and pith tissues were evaluated for tissue browning on a 1 to 5 scale. The LT50 developed for each suppression date was compared to the control. July-suppressed plants were generally hardiest for all tissues. June-suppressed plants were somewhat less hardy than July-suppressed plants, while April-, May- and unsuppressed plants were comparable and least hardy. Cane tissues of July-suppressed and unsuppressed plants had a higher level of soluble carbohydrates than other suppression dates.

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Neil C. Bell, Bernadine C. Strik, and Lloyd W. Martin

Primocanes of `Marion' trailing blackberry plants (Rubus spp.) were suppressed by cutting them off at ground level in either late April, May, June, or July 1991 and 1992. A control was included in which primocanes were not cut. Four canes per plant were trained in either August or February, with all other canes being removed and measured. Yield data were collected in 1992 and 1993, after which yield components were measured. Cane diameter was greatest for unsuppressed plants and declined with later primocane removal date. Cane length was greatest for unsuppressed and April-suppressed plants. Internode length decreased and main cane percent budbreak increased with later suppression date. Cane number and total main cane length per plant were increased in April-, May-, and June-suppressed plants in 1992 and for April- and June-suppressed plants in 1993. Consequently, yield of April-suppressed plants exceeded that of unsuppressed plants in 1992. Yield of April-, May-, and June-suppressed plants exceeded that of unsuppressed plants in 1993. August-trained plants yielded 46% more than February-trained plants, primarily because of higher percent budbreak on main canes. August-trained plants also produced longer canes with more nodes and a greater number of fruit per main cane lateral.

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Chad E. Finn, Francis J. Lawrence, Bernadine C. Strik, Brian Yorgey, and Joe DeFrancesco

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Chad E. Finn, Brian M. Yorgey, Bernadine C. Strik, Robert R. Martin, and Chaim Kempler

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Chad E. Finn, Brian M. Yorgey, Bernadine C. Strik, and Robert R. Martin