Rosa ×hybrida `Samantha' plants were grown under high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps, HPS lamps fitted with blue gel filters to reduce the red to far-red (R:FR) ratio, or metal halide lamps. R: FR ratios were 1:0.95, 1:2, and 1:0.26 for HPS; filtered HPS, and metal halide, respectively. Although the R: FR ratio for metal halide was 3.5 times higher than for HPS, the total energy from 630 to 750 nm was 2.8 times lower. At a nighttime supplemental photosynthetic photon flux of 70 to 75 μmol·m-2.s-1, plants under HPS and metal halide lamps produced 49 % and 64% more flowering shoots, respectively, than those under filtered HPS (averaged over two crop cycles). The quality index for flowers under HPS, metal halide, and filtered HPS was 25.0, 23.3, and 18.5, respectively. Vase life was 10 to 11 days, regardless of treatment.
G.L. Roberts, M.J. Tsujita, and B. Dansereau
Usha Palaniswamy, Richard McAvoy, and Bernard Bible
Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R.Br.) plants were grown in growth chambers at 15 °C or 25 °C and either 8- or 12-h photoperiod (PP). The photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) was 265 μmol·m-2s-1 in all chambers, but beginning 1 week before harvest, half of the plants in each chamber were subjected to a higher PPF (435 μmol·m-2·s-1). At harvest, watercress leaves and stems were analyzed for phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) concentration. Without supplemental PPF, watercress grown at 25 °C and 12-h PP produced higher PEITC concentration in leaves and stems than plants grown at 15 °C and 12-h PP, or plants grown at 8-h PP and either temperature. With one week of supplemental PPF before harvest, plants grown at 15 or 25 °C and the 8-h PP produced PEITC concentrations as high as plants exposed to 12-h PP and similar temperatures. However, a week of supplemental PPF did not alter PEITC concentrations in plants grown at the 12-h PP, regardless of temperature. At 25 °C, plants grown under the low PPF and the 12-h PP produced 62% greater dry mass than plants exposed to a week of high PPF and the 8-h PP, but did not differ in PEITC content. Thus, the effect of one week of high PPF on PEITC concentration depended on photoperiod.
Dominique-André Demers, André Gosselin, and H. Chris Wien
Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants were grown under natural or supplemental lighting that extended thephotoperiods to 16, 20, or 24 hours. Increasing the photoperiod to 16 and 20 hours increased pepper plant yields, but continuous light (24 hours) decreased yields compared to the 20-hour photoperiod. In a second experiment, plants were exposed to a photoperiod of 14 or 24 hoursand either pruned to one fruit every four nodes or not pruned. During the first weeks of treatments, plants grown under continuous light had higher shoot mass (fresh and dry) and yields. After 7 to 8 weeks of treatments, plants under continuous light grew more slowly than plants exposed to a 14-hour photoperiod. At the end of the experiment, shoot mass and yields of plants grown under a 14-hour photoperiod were equal to or higher than plants under continuous light. So, it seems possible to provide continuous lighting for a few weeksto improve growth and yields. Limiting the number of fruit per plant increased shoot mass and decreased yields, but had no effect on the general response of pepper plants to photoperiod treatment. Leaf mineral composition was not affected by photoperiod treatment, indicating that reduced growth and yields under continuous light were not due to unbalanced mineral nutrition. Leaf starch and sugar contents were increased under continuous light. However, fruit pruning treatments did not modify the pattern of starch and sugar accumulation under the different photoperiod treatments. Reduced growth and yields measured under a 24-hour photoperiod are probably explained by starch and sugar accumulation in leaves as a result of leaf limitations rather than a sink limitation.
Andrea Stuemky and Mark E. Uchanski
Recent interest in off-season greenhouse-grown food crops, in combination with supplemental (top) lighting (SL), has created opportunities for local production of high-value fruit crops such as strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa). Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as SL can be tailored to a specific quality of radiation (i.e., wavelengths) to promote increased production and quality of greenhouse-grown crops. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of three LED light bars on off-season controlled environmental agriculture (CEA) production of 2-day neutral strawberry cultivars: Albion and San Andreas. LED effects on overall vegetative biomass (e.g., stolon production, crown number, and leaf area), marketable fruit yield, and fruit quality [e.g., individual fruit weight and soluble solids content (SSC)] were measured during decreasing daylengths from Oct. to Dec. 2017 (Expt. 1) and increasing daylengths of Jan. to Apr. 2018 (Expt. 2). We hypothesized that the addition of SL via three LED treatments would increase measured parameters. Specifically, it was expected that the LED bars [high blue (HB) and low blue (LB)] with greater intensities of blue and red light would produce greater yields and also increase SSC of the berries. The hypotheses were tested by evaluating three LED light top bars [white far-red (WFR; 440–450 nm), HB, and LB], with wavelength peaks of blue (450 nm) and red (665 nm) light, but differing photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFDs). Results from these experiments showed that individual strawberry fruit size and SSC were increased with the use of HB and LB LEDs during the shortening days of Expt. 1. Increased leaf area and crown number were also affected positively within all LED treatments (WFR, LB, HB) for ‘San Andreas’. Relative to Expt. 1, the lengthening days of Expt. 2 elicited more limited fruit responses, although increased stolon production within all treatments was reported. In addition, differences between cultivars in leaf area and SSC were observed with ‘San Andreas’ growing larger leaves and ‘Albion’ berries having a greater SSC. Individual fruit weight of both cultivars responded similarly, with increased fruit size in LB and HB, specifically within both Expt. 1 and Expt. 2. Our studies indicate that the addition of SL, in the form of LB and HB improved overall strawberry fruit quality and plant growth during shortening daylengths and under greenhouse CEA conditions.
Anil P. Ranwala and William B. Miller
Experiments were conducted to evaluate storage temperature, storage irradiance and prestorage foliar sprays of gibberellin, cytokinin or both on postharvest quality of Oriental hybrid lilies (Lilium sp. `Stargazer'). Cold storage of puffy bud stage plants at 4, 7, or 10 °C in dark for 2 weeks induced leaf chlorosis within 4 days in a simulated consumer environment, and resulted in 60% leaf chlorosis and 40% leaf abscission by 20 days. Cold storage also reduced the duration to flower bud opening (days from the end of cold storage till the last flower bud opened), inflorescence and flower longevity, and increased flower bud abortion. Storage at 1 °C resulted in severe leaf injury and 100% bud abortion. Providing light up to 40 μmol·m-2·s-1 during cold storage at 4 °C significantly delayed leaf chlorosis and abscission and increased the duration of flower bud opening, inflorescence and flower longevity, and reduced bud abortion. Application of hormone sprays before cold storage affected leaf and flower quality. ProVide (100 mg·L-1 GA4+7) and Promalin (100 mg·L-1 each GA4+7 and benzyladenine (BA)) effectively prevented leaf chlorosis and abscission at 4 °C while ProGibb (100 mg·L-1 GA3) and ABG-3062 (100 mg·L-1 BA) did not. Accel (10 mg·L-1 GA4+7 and 100 mg·L-1 BA) showed intermediate effects on leaf chlorosis. Flower longevity was increased and bud abortion was prevented by all hormone formulations except ProGibb. The combination of light (40 μmol·m-2·s-1) and Promalin (100 mg·L-1 each GA4+7 and BA) completely prevented cold storage induced leaf chlorosis and abscission.
Harry W. Janes and Richard J. McAvoy
In this paper we review our research of light effects on tomato production. It was demonstrated that, during the production of greenhouse tomatoes, the total fruit yield, as well as time of harvest, was related to light. The date of harvest was inversely correlated with the amount of light the crop received during the seedling phase of growth, while fruit weight was positively correlated with light during the production phase. Additionally, we present information that shows that light was most effective in promoting fruit development between 15 and 45 days after flowering. Some of these relationships were quantified and used to develop a predictive model to help a grower plan a tomato crop to meet market demand. The concept of the Single-cluster Tomato Production System was developed, and the rewards of using our understanding of plant-environment interactions to control plant growth and, therefore maxim&profits were shown. Furthermore, the need to create a more dynamic model and the methods for doing so were discussed.
Christopher J. Currey and Roberto G. Lopez
when evaluating sources for providing supplemental light in a greenhouse, including light intensity, spectrum, electrical consumption, and uniformity of lighting patterns as well as financial considerations such as initial and ongoing maintenance costs
Claudia Elkins and Marc W. van Iersel
supplemental lighting to improve growth and yield of crops. At higher latitudes, where larger seasonal fluctuations in the DLI occur, supplemental light is vital for year-round production ( Albright et al., 2000 ). However, supplemental lighting costs can be
Marc W. van Iersel and David Gianino
, for efficient year-round production in greenhouses, supplemental light is often needed from late fall through early spring ( Clausen et al., 2015 ; Gómez et al., 2013 ). High-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps are still the most commonly used lamp for
Shuyang Zhen and Marc W. van Iersel
use of supplemental light. Supplemental light use efficiency can be improved by implementing energy-efficient lights, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) ( Nelson and Bugbee, 2014 ). In addition to the efficiency of the lights, the overall efficiency