`White Jewel' is a yellow-and-orange fleshed spontaneous mutant of the orange-flesh sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivar Jewel. Mutations in storage root flesh color, and other traits are common in sweetpotato. The orange flesh color of sweetpotato is due to β-carotene stored in chromoplasts of root cells. β-carotene is important because of its role in human health. In an effort to elucidate biosynthesis and storage of β-carotene in sweetpotato roots, microarray analysis was used to investigate genes differentially expressed between `White Jewel' and `Jewel' storage roots. β-carotene content calculated from a* color values of `Jewel' and `White Jewel' were 20.66 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) and 1.68 mg/100 g FW, respectively. Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IPI) was down-regulated in `White Jewel', but farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPS), geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPS), and lycopene β-cyclase (LCY-b) were not differentially expressed. Several genes associated with chloroplasts were differentially expressed, indicating probable differences in chromoplast development of `White Jewel' and `Jewel'. Sucrose Synthase was down-regulated in `White Jewel' and fructose and glucose levels in `White Jewel' were lower than in `Jewel' while sucrose levels were higher in `White Jewel'. No differences were observed between dry weight or alcohol insoluble solids of the two cultivars. This study represents the first effort to elucidate β-carotene synthesis and storage in sweetpotato through large-scale gene expression analysis.
Cecilia E. McGregor and Don R. LaBonte
Phillip A. Wadl, Livy H. Williams III, Matthew I. Horry, and Brian K. Ward
sweetpotato breeding programs. Insect-resistant (‘Ruddy’) and -susceptible (SC-1149-19) controls were also included. Vine cuttings (slips) ≈12 inches long produced annually from storage roots for all experiments were cut from plant-nursery beds no more than 3
Satoru Motoki, Tianli Tang, Takumi Taguchi, Ayaka Kato, Hiromi Ikeura, and Tomoo Maeda
components or resources of rutin ( Motoki et al., 2012a ). Unlike cladophylls, strong growth-inhibitory activity was observed in storage roots ( Motoki et al., 2006 ). Few reports are available on the active use of the cladophylls and storage roots as useful
Satoru Motoki, Takumi Taguchi, Ayaka Kato, Katsuhiro Inoue, and Eiji Nishihara
process leaves ferns from the aboveground parts and roots from the underground parts as large amounts of unusable parts, and this is an issue to be resolved. In our previous study, large amounts of rutin were noted in the cladophylls and storage roots
Don R. La Bonte, David H. Picha, and Hester A. Johnson
The quantity and pattern of carbohydrate-related changes during storage root development differed among six sweetpotato cultivars [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Poir. `Beauregard', `Heart-o-Gold', `Jewel', `Rojo Blanco', `Travis', and `White Star']. Measurements were taken for individual sugars, total sugars, alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS, crude starch), and dry weight (DW) at 2-week intervals from 7 to 19 weeks after transplanting (WAT) in two separate years. Sucrose was the major sugar during all stages of development, representing at least 68% of total sugars across all cultivars and dates. Pairwise comparisons showed `Heart-o-Gold' had the highest sucrose content among the cultivars. Sucrose content increased by 56% for `Heart-o-Gold' over the 12 weeks of assay, ranking first among the cultivars at 17 and 19 WAT and possessing 27% more sucrose than the next highest ranking cultivar, `Jewel', at 19 WAT. Fructose content profiles varied among and within cultivars. `Beauregard' showed a consistent increase in fructose throughout development while `Whitestar' showed a consistent decrease. The other cultivars were inconsistent in their fructose content profiles. Glucose content profiles were similar to those for fructose changes during development. The relationship between monosaccharides was fructose = 0.7207 × glucose + 0.0241. Cultivars with the highest fructose and glucose content could be selected by breeders after 13 WAT. Early clonal selection for high sucrose and total sugars is less promising because substantive changes in clonal rank occurred for sucrose and total sugars after 15 WAT. Cultivars ranking the highest in total sugars had either more monosaccharides to compensate for a lower sucrose content or more sucrose to compensate for a lower monosaccharide content. The relationship between DW and AIS was similar (AIS = 0.00089 × DW), and DW and AIS increased with time for most cultivars. Cultivars with high DW and AIS can be selected early during storage root development.
Margarita R. Villagarcia, Wanda W. Collins, and C. David Raper Jr.
Soil N availability is an important component in storage root production of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batata (L.) Lam.]. A controlled-environment experiment was conducted to characterize effects of N availability on patterns of dry matter, nonstructural carbohydrates, and N accumulation, and to determine possible components of N use efficiency that vary between two genotypes of sweetpotato. Rooted cuttings of `Jewel' and MD810 were transplanted into pots filled with sand and kept in a growth chamber for 72 days. Plants were watered during the first 30 days with a complete nutrient solution that contained 14 mm NO3 - and then for the next 42 days with one of three complete nutrient solution that contained either 2, 8, or 14 mm NO3 -. At 30, 44, 58, and 72 days after transplanting, three plants from each cultivar and treatment combination were sampled and separated into leaves, stems plus petioles, fibrous roots, and storage roots. Each plant fraction was freeze-dried, weighed, ground, and analyzed for total N, soluble sugars, and starch. Availability of N in the substrate, which limited dry matter accumulation at 2 mm NO3 -, was nonlimiting at 8 and 14 mm NO3 -. In both genotypes, net assimilation rate, efficiency of N use (i.e., increments of dry matter accumulated per increment of N taken up), and proportion of dry matter allocated to storage roots were greater for N-stressed (2 mm NO3 -) than N-replete (8 and 14 mm NO3 -) plants. For the N-stressed plants, however, efficiency of N use was greater in MD810 than in `Jewel'. Although rate of NO3 - uptake per unit fibrous root mass was similar in the two genotypes under the N stress treatment, MD810 had greater uptake rate than `Jewel' under nonlimiting availability of NO3- in the substrate. The increased rate of uptake under nonlimiting NO3 - supplies apparently was related to enhanced rates of carbohydrate transport from shoots to roots. As tissue concentration of N declined in response to the lowest application of NO3 -, shoot growth was limited prior to, and to a greater extent than, the photosynthetic rate. The resulting relative decline in sink activity of shoots thus presumably increased the availability of carbohydrates for transport to roots.
Yield and insect damage of 50 potato cultivars, representative of genetic variation found in CIP germplasm collection, were evaluated over two years in a wide range of environmental conditions throughout Peru, from 4°S to 17°S, including coastal desert, cool highland and humid jungle, at altitudes from 180m to 3280m. Storage root and foliage yields were related to maximum and minimum temperature, photoperiod, precipitation, soils, and insect damage. Genotypic yield varied considerably from one location to another. Jonathan (Peruvian cultivar) produced well in Cañete (coastal desert) but not in the jungle or highlands. Jewel (US cultivar) produced well in Yurimaguas (jungle) but not in coastal deserts. Pesticides were not used but several cultivars had little or no insect damage, others were badly damaged. Some cultivars produced a reasonable yield over a wider range than did others. Results suggest that a cultivar can be strongly adapted to a particular set of environmental conditions. Data provide valuable information for growers-breeders.
Susan C. Miyasaka, Marisa Wall, Don LaBonte, and Alton Arakaki
( Follett, 2006 )]. Sweetpotato weevil larvae feed and develop within the storage root of sweetpotato, making it difficult to control the larvae with insecticides and resulting in inedible storage roots ( Thompson et al., 1999 ). Crop losses in Hawai‘i due
Peter J. Dittmar, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Katherine M. Jennings, David W. Monks, Sushila Chaudhari, Stephen Meyers, and Chen Jiang
to North Carolina growing conditions, producing high yielding and high quality storage roots ( Yencho et al., 2008 ), and because of its adaptability is grown on more than 88% of the commercial acreage across the state ( Schultheis, 2016
G. Craig Yencho, Kenneth V. Pecota, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Zvezdana-Pesic VanEsbroeck, Gerald J. Holmes, Billy E. Little, Allan C. Thornton, and Van-Den Truong
. 1998. A single cutting was taken from each seedling and planted in the field in May 1998 in an “on-farm” trial and selected as a “single-hill selection” on 9 Sept. 1998. A “single-hill selection” includes the storage roots derived from the single plant