`Delicious' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees received regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) early in the growing season to determine if fruit quality and storage life would he altered compared to well-watered trees. Soil moisture and leaf water potential were lower in RDI trees than in those that did not receive RDI most of the season. Internal ethylene concentration increased logarithmically earlier in RDI apples. At harvest, RDI fruit were smaller and had a higher soluble solids concentration (SSC) and lower titratable acidity. Starch degradation was delayed in RDI fruit, and their color was not affected. Firmness was not affected when the effect of size on firmness was removed. The SSC of RDI apples remained higher during storage, but starch content, titratable acidity, firmness, and color were similar.
Robert C. Ebel, Edward L. Proebsting, and Max E Patterson
Jiwon Jeong, Donald J. Huber, and Steven A. Sargent
1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene action, has been shown to extend the storage life of avocado fruit. Waxing is also known to extend the storage life of avocado by reducing water loss and modifying the fruit internal atmosphere. In this study, 1-MCP and waxing were used to investigate their effects on ripening characteristics in avocado fruit. Preclimacteric `Tower II' and `Booth 7' avocados were treated with 1-MCP (Ethylbloc®) for 12 h at 20 °C. Half of the fruit were waxed (Sta-Fresh 819F®, FMC Co.) after 1-MCP treatment. The fruit were subsequently stored at 13 °C or 20 °C at 85% RH. As evaluated by fruit firmness, ethylene evolution, and respiration rate, 1-MCP and waxing delayed the ripening of `Tower II' avocados stored at 20 °C. Fruit treated with both 1-MCP and wax had better retention of green peel color and fruit firmness, and the delayed climacteric pattern of ethylene evolution and respiration rates. Waxing reduced weight loss and retarded softening, but did not delay climacteric ethylene evolution and respiration rates. Whereas firmness of control fruit decreased from >100 N to 20 N in as few as 7 days at 20 °C, fruit treated with both 1-MCP and wax reached 20 N over 11 days at 20 °C. The firmness of `Booth 7' avocados treated with both 1-MCP and wax decreased from >170 N to 20 N over a 5-week period at 13 °C. Current studies are addressing the nature of the dramatic decrease in firmness of MCP-treated fruit.
Ji Gang Kim*, Yaguang Luo, Yang Tao, and Kenneth C. Gross
The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP), sanitizer and their combination on ethylene action, microbial growth and storage life of fresh-cut cilantro were studied. Fresh cilantro was treated with 1.5 μL·L-1 MCP for 18 hours at 10 °C. The treated and nontreated cilantro leaves were cut and washed in water, chlorine, and mixed solution of sodium chlorite and citric acid (SANOVA). Samples were dried, packaged with 29.2μmol·kg-1 Pa s oxygen transmission rate films, and stored for 14 days at 5 °C. Results indicated that MCP affected respiration rate of fresh-cut cilantro and the headspace gas composition (O2 and CO2) of sample packages. The combined treatment had lower tissue electrolyte leakage and ethanol concentration, and delayed color changes during storage. SANOVA and the combination of MCP and SANOVA were effective in reducing aerobic microbial population and coliform population. Samples treated with MCP and SANOVA had good quality with high overall quality score at the end of storage.
R. Couture, M.I. Cantwell, D. Ke, and M.E. Saltveit Jr.
Relationships between storage quality attributes, such as russet spotting and browning intensity, and physiological attributes, such as soluble phenolic content and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities, of minimally processed crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were studied. The processed lettuce tissue was kept in air or air plus ethylene at 2 or 5 μl·liter-1 at 2.5 or 5C for 1 to 4 days and then transferred to air at 2.5, 5, or 20C for 1 to several days. None of the above physiological attributes of the initial samples from eight lettuce cultivars (Calmar, El Toro, Sea Green, Pacific, Monterey, Salinas 88, 86-13, and Nerone) and three maturity stages (immature, mature, and overmature) correlated with their storage quality. However, ethylene-induced PPO and PAL activities and browning intensity measured 3 to 4 days after harvest consistently and significantly correlated with the final visual quality of the ethylene-treated, minimally processed lettuce after 6 to 10 days of storage. Among these three attributes, ethylene induced a 2.5- to 5.3-fold increase in PAL activity, while the relative changes in PPO activity and browning intensity were only 23% to 68%. Ethylene-induced PAL activity possibly may be used as an index to predict the storage life of minimally processed lettuce.
Jiwon Jeong, Donald J. Huber, and Steven A. Sargent
Ethylene is integrally involved in the ripening of climacteric fruit. The ability to prevent ethylene action, or manipulate fruit sensitivity to ethylene, would provide a powerful means of extending postharvest storage life of these fruit, particularly for those that ripen rapidly and/or that are not tolerant of low-temperature storage. In this study, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene action, was used to investigate ripening, respiration, and ethylene production in avocado fruit. `Monroe' avocados were treated with 1-MCP (Ethylbloc®) for 24 h at 20 °C. The fruit were subsequently stored at 13 or 20 °C. Some fruit were exposed to 100 ppm ethylene at 13 and 20 °C before or after MCP treatment. As evaluated by flesh firmness, respiration rate, and ethylene evolution, 1-MCP completely inhibited the ripening of avocado fruit stored at 13 and 20 °C and 85% relative humidity. Ethylene evolution and respiration rates were dramatically depressed, greater than 95% and 52%, respectively, by 1-MCP. Whereas firmness of control fruit decreased from over 100 N to 10 N in as few as 7 days, fruit treated with 1-MCP remained firm (>45 N) for periods of up to 3 weeks at 13 °C. Treatment of avocado fruit with 100 ppm ethylene at 20 °C for 12 h did not overcome the influence of MCP treatment. Similarly, treatment with ethylene before MCP exposure did not circumvent the effects of the cyclic olefin on ripening. Current studies are addressing the effects of MCP concentration and exposure time on avocado ripening.
Karim M. Farag and Jiwan P. Palta
A natural lipid, lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), was used as a tomato fruit ripening agent. The effect of this compound on hastening the ripening and on the defoliation of the `Heinz 7155' processing tomato and the Glamour fresh-market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was compared to the effect of ethephon. Vines were sprayed to runoff in the field with a hand sprayer and fruits were harvested 2 weeks or 20 days later in a single harvest operation. LPE (100 mg liter-1) accelerated ripening of both processing and fresh-market tomatoes without defoliation. LPE-treated tomatoes had a better shelf life than the control or ethephon-treated fruit, whether they were harvested at the breaker, pink, or red stage of maturity. The combination of LPE and ethephon (100 mg liter-1) enhanced tomato ripening without damaging the foliage, suggesting that LPE can mitigate the undesirable effects of ethephon on foliage and the fruit. The LPE-related lipid phosphatidyldimethylethanol-amine dipalmitoyl (PDED) also was able to enhance some aspects of keeping quality of tomato fruits, but was not able to enhance fruit ripening. Phosphatidylethanolamine was not as effective as LPE or PDED. It appears that the active molecule of this natural lipid is the lyso form. Our results provide evidence that LPE can enhance tomato fruit ripening and postharvest storage life of vine-ripe fruits and fruits picked at early ripeness stages.
E.M. Yahia, K.E. Nelson, and A.A. Kader
The effects of 10% carbon monoxide (CO) added to air or controlled atmospheres (2% O2 with or without 5% CO2) on quality and storage life of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless) were compared with those of the conventional SO2 fumigation treatments for decay control. CO in air reduced respiration and C2H4 production rates, and retarded berry browning and softening, but was only partially effective in retarding decay beyond 2 months at 0°C. SO2 treatments were very effective in controlling the spread of decay, but brown discoloration of the berries increased, especially after 2 months at 0° or 1°. When combined with 2% O2 with or without 5% CO2, CO inhibited C2H4 production and retarded decay development, but the presence of CO2 increased brown discoloration of the berries. A combination of 2% O2 + 10% CO was as effective as SO2 in controlling decay of grapes held at 0° for up to 4 months and caused less browning and bleaching than SO2.
Jim Hancock, Pete Callow, Sedat Serçe, Eric Hanson, and Randy Beaudry
storage life of blueberry fruit has previously been shown to be enhanced by harvesting less-mature fruit ( Ballinger et al., 1978 ; Beaudry et al., 1998 ; Galletta et al., 1971 ) and maintenance under a controlled atmosphere (CA) ( Beaudry et al., 1998
Jiwon Jeong, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Donald J. Huber, and Steven A. Sargent
storage life because of excessive tissue softening, which is coordinated by ethylene and has been demonstrated to be a consequence of alteration in cell wall metabolism ( Huber et al., 2001 ; Karakurt and Huber, 2003 ). There are numerous chemical and
P. Perkins-Veazie, N. Roe, J. Lasswell, and J. McFarland
Growers in north and central Texas produce peaches of exceptional size and quality yet have no information on the best maturity stage/storage regime for maximum shelf life. `Majestic' peaches were harvested at five maturity stages, corresponding to hard green through full red, soft ripeness. Intermittent warming and/or delayed warming reduces chilling injury in peaches and these treatments were used on hard green through firm red stages. Fruit were held 4 weeks at 5 °C, 85% RH continuously (control); 1 day at 20 °C followed by 4 weeks at 5 °C (DS); 4 weeks at 5 °C with 1 day warming at 20 °C every 2 weeks (IW). Chilling injury symptoms (internal browning) were noted on control and IW peaches after 2 weeks storage. We concluded that hard green peaches are too immature and red peaches at velvet and full soft stages are too soft (<20N flesh resistance) to ship. Chilling injury appeared in peaches after 2 weeks storage at 5 °C but could be avoided by delaying storage for 24 hours after harvest.