Irrigated production of pecans in the southwestern United States started with notoriously inefficient flood irrigation along river basins. Today, most surface-irrigated orchards are laser-leveled, and many orchards in upland areas are under sprinkler or drip irrigation. Technical and scientific knowledge for improving water management also has evolved from studying drought effects on tree performance to an improved understanding of water relations, salt effects, evapotranspiration processes, and the distribution of water and salts in irrigated fields. Yet, many growers still experience difficulties with water management and may benefit from maintaining the soil water suction above saturation but below 30 to 40 cb until shuck opening. The soil salinity should be kept below 2.5 dS·m−1, and irrigation water should be applied to essentially the entire root zone for optimum tree growth. Due to extreme soil variability existing in most irrigated fields of the southwestern region, these guidelines alone are not adequate. Soil profiles, root distributions, water quality, and irrigation methods may have to be examined to improve water management.
S. Miyamoto, J. Henggeler, and J. Benton Storey
Shengrui Yao, Robert Heyduck, and Steven Guldan
of this study was to evaluate jujube cultivars in different hardiness zones in the southwestern United States and to recommend top-performing cultivars to growers in each region. Here we report the early performance of fresh eating cultivars
Shengrui Yao, Robert Heyduck, Steven Guldan, and Govinda Sapkota
jujube in southwestern United States, p. 212–215. In: USDA yearbook of agriculture 1926. U.S. Dept. Agr., Washington, DC. 30 July 2020. < http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/IND43842740/PDF > U.S. Department of Agriculture 2012 USDA plant hardiness zone
Kanin J. Routson, Ann A. Reilley, Adam D. Henk, and Gayle M. Volk
study. In total, the 280 historic trees represented 144 distinct genotypes. Table 1. Ploidy, origin, and probable date of release are provided for 109 apple cultivars introduced to the southwestern United States. z Table 2. Identification of cultivars
Shengrui Yao, Junxin Huang, and Robert Heyduck
-tasting fruit. These volunteer seedling plants belong to Z. jujuba and could be good germplasm for new cultivar selections. Early researchers had identified that jujube grew and produced well and had great potential in the southwestern United States
D.A. Devitt, R.L. Morris, D. Kopec, and M. Henry
Golf course superintendents in the southwestern United States (Tucson, Ariz.; Phoenix, Ariz.; Las Vegas, Nev.; Orange County, Calif.) were surveyed to assess attitudes toward using reuse water for irrigation. Eighty-nine golf course personnel returned the survey, with 28% indicating that they irrigate with municipal water, 36% with well water, and 27% with reuse water. The reason for switching to reuse water varied by state, with 40% of respondents switching in Arizona because of mandates, 47% switching in Nevada because of cost incentives, and 47% switching in California because it was considered a more reliable source of water. Less than 20% of the respondents rated the use of reuse water on golf courses and parks to have a negative impact on cost, the environment and health. However, respondents indicated that using reuse water does have a negative impact on the operations of the golf course, with pond maintenance and irrigation maintenance having the highest negative impact (∼80%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that among those who indicated that using reuse water would have a negative impact on golf course management, a higher percentage were individuals who had a greater number of years of experience irrigating with reuse water (P = 0.01) and individuals who have taken classes on how to use reuse water (P = 0.05). Respondents who currently irrigate with reuse water indicated they had changed a wide range of landscape and turfgrass management practices as a result of using reuse water. Based on the results of this survey, it was concluded that golf course personnel in the southwestern U.S. do not oppose the transition to reuse water for irrigation. However, it was also clear they recognize using such water negatively impacts their golf courses' operations.
Shengrui Yao, Steve Guldan, Robert Flynn, and Carlos Ochoa
In 2011, 16 strawberry cultivars were planted with two planting systems—a black-plastic-covered perennial system (BP) and a matted-row system (MR)—arranged in a split-block design with four replications at the New Mexico State University (NMSU) Sustainable Agriculture Science Center, Alcalde, NM. Cultivars varied greatly in their yield and tolerance to high-pH soil. ‘Allstar’, ‘Chandler’, and ‘Darselect’ were the three most sensitive cultivars to high soil pH among the 16 cultivars tested, whereas ‘Wendy’, ‘Brunswick’, ‘Honeoye’, and ‘Clancy’ were the four most tolerant cultivars by the end of July 2011. Two to three applications of 0.67 g·m–1 (linear row) FeEDDHA were used per year through fertigation to effectively treat leaf chlorosis resulting from high soil pH. After averaging the yields of 2012 and 2013, ‘Mesabi’ and ‘Kent’ had greater yield than others and twice the yield of ‘Jewel’. Early cultivars Earliglow and Annapolis and late cultivars L’Amour and Ovation all had low yields in both years. In Jan. 2013, the minimum temperature reached –21.7 °C, which caused crown damage to some cold-tender cultivars, especially in the black-plastic-covered system. ‘Wendy’, ‘Chandler’, ‘Clancy’, and ‘Jewel’ were the cold-tender cultivars, whereas ‘Mesabi’, ‘Kent’, ‘Cavendish’, and ‘Honeoye’ were the hardiest among those tested. Despite repeated late frosts from 19 Apr. to 4 May 2013 and a delayed harvest season, most cultivars produced greater yield than in 2012 with ‘Mesabi’ and ‘Kent’ being the greatest. There were no significant differences in yields in 2012 and 2013 between BP and MR treatments, but yield in BP was significantly lower than in MR in 2014. With appropriate cultivar selection and management, growers can produce strawberries in high-pH soil at high elevation with a short growing season in the Southwest.
Jane E. Spinti, Rolston St. Hilaire, and Dawn VanLeeuwen
We surveyed homeowners with residential landscapes in Las Cruces, N.M., to determine design features participants valued in their landscapes, their attitudes toward the landscape use of desert plants and opinions on factors that would encourage respondents to reduce landscape water use. We also determined whether the willingness to use desert plants in their landscapes related to the length of residency in the southwestern United States. At least 98% of respondents landscaped to enhance the appearance of their home and increase their property value. About half (50.6%) of the participants strongly agreed or agreed that the main reason to landscape was to display their landscape preferences. Many participants indicated they would use desert plants to landscape their front yard (80.3%) and back yard (56.3%), but relatively lower percentages of participants actually had desert landscapes in their front yard and back yard. Regardless of their property value, respondents were more likely to use desert plants in their backyard the shorter their stay in the desert. Data revealed that participants rank water shortages as the factor that would most likely cause them to reduce the amount of water they applied to their landscapes. We conclude that homeowners report willingness to use desert plants but desert-type landscapes are not a widespread feature of managed residential landscapes. Furthermore, water shortages and the length of time respondents spent in a desert environment would most likely influence water use in their landscapes.
tolerate 48.9 °C in the summer in northern California and withstood –30 °C in the winter. Jujubes have been shown to grow and fruit well in the hot and arid southwestern United States ( Locke, 1955 ; Meyer, 1911 ; Thomas, 1927 ; Yao, 2012a ). In China
Rolston St. Hilaire, Dawn M. VanLeeuwen, and Patrick Torres
-intensive lawn area is not widespread in residential sites in Santa Fe. A logistic regression with willingness to use desert plants to landscape the backyard as the response variable, and time in the southwestern United States as the explanatory variable was fit