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Terence L. Robinson* and Christopher B. Watkins

In 2001 and 2002, we imposed a wide range of croploads (0-15 fruits/cm2 of TCA) on 4- and 5-year-old Honeycrisp/M.9 trees by manual hand thinning soon after bloom to define appropriate croploads that give adequate repeat bloom and also the best fruit quality. At harvest each year we evaluated fruit ripening and quality. Samples were stored for 5 months in air at 38 °F and 33 °F and evaluated for fruit firmness and storage disorders. Cropload was negatively correlated with tree growth, return bloom, fruit size, fruit red color, fruit sugar content, fruit starch content, fruit firmness, fruit acidity, fruit bitter pit, fruit senescent breakdown, fruit rot and fruit superficial scald, but was positively correlated with leaf blotch symptoms, fruit internal ethylene concentration at harvest, and fruit soggy breakdown. There was a strong effect of cropload on fruit size up to a cropload 7, beyond which there was only a small additional effect. Although there was considerable variation in return bloom, a relatively low cropload was required to obtain adequate return bloom. Fruit red color was reduced only slightly up to a cropload of 8 beyond which it was reduced dramatically. The reduced fruit color and sugar content at high croploads could indicate a delay in maturity of but, fruits from high croploads were also softer, had less starch and greater internal ethylene. It that excessive croploads advance maturity. Overall, croploads greater than 10 resulted in no bloom the next year, and poor fruit size, color and flavor, but these fruits tended to have the least storage disorders. Moderate croploads (7-8) resulted in disappointing return bloom and mediocre fruit quality. For optimum quality and annual cropping, relatively low croploads of 4-5 were necessary.

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Rachel Leisso, Ines Hanrahan, and Jim Mattheis

Maney, 1924 ). Later in storage, pathogens can infest the affected tissue. Soft scald is often found concomitant with soggy breakdown, a fruit cortex, or flesh, disorder in which regions of brown water–soaked tissue have similarly sharply defined edges

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Yosef Al Shoffe, Abdul Sattar Shah, Jacqueline F. Nock, and Christopher B. Watkins

‘Honeycrisp’ apples can be highly susceptible to the development of low temperature storage disorders such as soft scald (an external injury) and soggy breakdown (an internal injury) ( Lachapelle et al., 2013 , 2017 ; Tong et al., 2003 ; Wargo

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Cindy B.S. Tong, Hsueh-Yuan Chang, Jennifer K. Boldt, Yizhou B. Ma, Jennifer R. DeEll, Renae E. Moran, Gaétan Bourgeois, and Dominique Plouffe

Multiple types of flesh browning can occur as storage disorders in ‘Honeycrisp’ apple ( Malus × domestica ) fruit. Three of the browning disorders that occur within the cortex have been previously described as “soggy breakdown” ( Watkins et al

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temperature disorders such as soft scald and soggy breakdown, and disorders such as bitter pit that are exacerbated by warmer storage temperatures. Al Shoffe and Watkins (p. 481) found that short-term storage (1 to 4 weeks) at 33 °F followed by storage at 38

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James Mattheis and David R. Rudell

soluble solids content, include development of peel greasiness, peel yellowing, and senescent disorders ( Watkins et al., 2004 , 2005 ). ‘Honeycrisp’ is susceptible to the chilling disorders soft scald and soggy breakdown ( Tong et al., 2003 ), but the

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Christopher B. Watkins and Jacqueline F. Nock

to a number of physiological disorders including bitter pit, soft scald, soggy breakdown, low temperature breakdown, and senescent breakdown ( DeEll and Ehsani-Moghaddam, 2010 ; DeLong et al., 2006 ; Moran et al., 2009 ; Rosenberger et al., 2004

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Renae E. Moran, Jennifer R. DeEll, and William Halteman

. 111 738 742 Blanpied, G.D. Silsby, K. 1992 Predicting harvest date windows for apples Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Info. Bul. 221 Brooks, C. Harley, C.P. 1934 Soft scald and soggy break-down of apples J. Agr. Res. 49 55 69 DeLong, J.M. Prange, R

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Yin Xu, Yizhou Ma, Nicholas P. Howard, Changbin Chen, Cindy B.S. Tong, Gail Celio, Jennifer R. DeEll, and Renae E. Moran

Blanpied, G.D. Silsby, K.J. 1992 Predicting harvest date windows for apples. Cornell Coop. Ext. Info. Bul. 221 Brooks, C. Harley, C.P. 1934 Soft scald and soggy break-down of apples J. Agr. Res. 49 55 69 Faust, M. Shear, C.B. 1972 Fine structure of the

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Corina Serban, Lee Kalcsits, Jennifer DeEll, and James P. Mattheis

chilling sensitive cultivar and can develop soft scald and soggy breakdown when cooled immediately after harvest ( Watkins and Rosenberger, 2000 ). However, the use of a temperature conditioning period at a relatively warm storage temperature (10 to 20 °C