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James R. Ault

Shoot proliferation cultures were established in vitro using flower-stem explants from two different interspecific hybrid plants of Liatris. Explants taken on two dates from field-grown plants were successfully established and axillary shoot growth promoted on a medium consisting of Murashige and Skoog basal salts and vitamins with 30 g·L-1 sucrose, 1.0 μm BA, and 7.0 g·L-1 agar, with a medium pH = 5.7. Initial explant contamination rates were significantly higher among explants collected later in the growing season. Addition of BA (1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, or 16.0 μm) improved shoot formation compared to the control for both plants. Proliferation rates differed between the dates of establishment, the plants, and the BA treatments. Shoots rooted readily in medium without PGRs or with 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 μm K-IBA. Overall rooting was 88%. About 90% of the plants rooted in the presence of 1.0 μm K-IBA were successfully established in the greenhouse. Chemical names used: 6-benzyl adenine (BA); potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA).

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Len Burkhart and Martin Meyer Jr.

Selected cultivars of redbud (Cercis canadensis L.) and related Cercis species are usually propagated by grafting, but the success rate is low and other problems can be associated with the rootstock. Micropropagation would solve many of these problems. Shoots from a 25 year-old redbud were collected during July 1989 and established in vitro on modified MS medium. Shoots proliferated poorly with lower concentrations of Benzyladenine (BA) and high concentrations of BA caused shoot tip abortion. Similar problems with red-silver hybrid maples were solved by the use of Thidiazuron (TZ) in the medium. Established 2 cm redbud shoots were treated with TZ (0, 0.05, and 0.1 uM) and BA (0, 1 and 5 uM) in a factorial arrangement to test for shoot proliferation. After 4 weeks of the treatment with 0.1 uM TZ and 5 uM BA, mean shoot number was 4.6 compared to 1.1 shoots with no BA or TZ in the medium. Further experiments with rooting treatments will be presented.

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Rebecca E. Scoville and Todd P. West

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple nutrient salt formulations and different plant growth regulator concentrations on initiation and proliferation of axillary shoot culture of tropical hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.). Combinations of five thidiazuron (TDZ) concentrations (0, 10-6, 10-7, 10-8, or 10-9 M) in conjunction with two 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) concentrations (0, 10-5 M) and two indole-3-butryic acid (IBA) concentrations (0, 10-5 M) were compared to determine which plant growth regulator combination(s) would stimulate the proliferation of the most viable axillary shoots. Also, five nutrient salt formulations (MS, 1/2 MS; Macro MS, WPM, LP, or DKW) ranging from high to low salt formulations were studied to determine a suitable nutrient medium formulation for axillary shoot proliferation. Nodal explants that were 2 cm in length were used to initiate cultures and were maintained on the various medium treatments plus 30 g·L-1 sucrose and 7 g·L-1 agar at a pH of 5.8. Explants were incubated about 30 cm beneath cool-white fluorescent lamps that provide a photon flux of about 40 μM·m-2·s-1 for a 16-hour photoperiod at 25 ± 3 °C. Nodal explants were transferred every 3 weeks for a total culture period of 12 weeks. At each transfer date data were collected on node number, axillary shoot number and length. Initial results indicate that high nutrient salt formulations coupled with low TDZ concentrations performed better at axillary shoot initiation. Poor shoot elongation was observed and further research needs to be performed to address this issue.

Open access

Maurizio Micheli, Daniel Fernandes da Silva, Daniela Farinelli, Graziana Agate, Rafael Pio, and Franco Famiani

“complex mixture” able to improve in vitro shoot proliferation that can be added to the others reported in the literature ( Molnár et al., 2011 ; Souza et al., 2013 ). The use of neem oil as a “complex mixture” is very interesting because shoot

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Karim H. Al-Juboory, L.K. Al-Amiry, and M.M Kushad

Stem cuttings of greenhouse-grown gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) were surface-sterilized and planted on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L (BA) and 0.5 mg/L (NAA). This study examines the effects of pH and various sugars on the growth and proliferation of in vitro-cultured gardenia. The highest average shoot number and shoot length were obtained at pH 4.0 to 5.0. In determining the effect of sugars on shoot proliferation, our findings indicated that sucrose and glucose at 30 and 40 g/L, respectively, produced a higher shoot number when compared to fructose and xylose. In addition, sucrose and glucose produced the highest root number, root length, and rooting percentage, while fructose and xylose had no effect on rooting. Sucrose and fructose produced more calli in comparison to other sugars. Xylose at 40 g/L produced the highest dry weight (18.5%), while xylose at 10 g/L produced the highest fresh weight (94.4%).

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Fang Geng, Renae Moran, Michael Day, William Halteman, and Donglin Zhang

because propagation is difficult ( Nelson, 1976 ; Quamme and Hogue, 1994 ). For example, poor shoot proliferation and insufficient shoot elongation occur with ‘Ottawa 3’ (Ott.3), ‘Malling 9’ (M.9), ‘Malling 26’ (M.26), ‘Budagovsky 9’ (B.9), and ‘P 2

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Chia-Yun Ko, Tsai-Yun Lin, Chin-Wen Ho, and Jei-Fu Shaw

flasks, each with 10 to 13 explants. At the end of 60 d, shoot proliferation was evaluated to obtain percent survival. Survival was recorded when explants remained green and proliferated, whereas failure to survive was recorded when explants turned brown

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Yaser Hassan Dewir, Abdulhakim A. Aldubai, Rashid Sultan Al-Obeed, Salah El-Hendawy, Mayada Kadri Seliem, and Khadija Rabeh Al-Harbi

shoot tips and nodes of D. ombet seedlings onto MS medium without plant growth regulators (PGRs) for 6 months produced sufficient stock of shoots for further experiments. Fig. 1. In vitro seed germination and shoot proliferation of Dracaena ombet

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Mohammed Elsayed El-Mahrouk, Yaser Hassan Dewir, and Yougasphree Naidoo

other cytokinins for the release of axillary buds from apical dominance in other Araceae members including Dieffenbachia ( Elmahrouk et al., 2006 ) and Spathiphyllum ( Dewir et al., 2006 ). Chen and Yeh (2007) found that maximum shoot proliferation

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Ni Lee and Hazel Y. Wetzstein

Plantlets were recovered from axillary bud cultures of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia, `Summit'). Nodal segments 0.5 to 1.0 cm long were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 5, 10, 20, or 40 μm BA. Best total shoot production was obtained with 10 μm BA; with higher BA levels, shoots were unexpanded and exhibited high mortalities. MS medium supplemented with IBA enhanced rooting by increasing rooting percentage and number per plantlet. Shoots previously proliferated on medium with 5 μm BA rooted significantly better than those multiplied on 10 μM BA. Shoot vigor during rooting was greater in shoots proliferated on 5 vs. 10 μm BA. Root development was not significantly affected by liquid vs. agar-solidifted medium or shoot length. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl) -1H-purin-6-amine (BA), 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).