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Victor M. Gallegos-Cedillo, Juan E. Álvaro, Th. Capatos, T. Luan Hachmann, Gilda Carrasco, and Miguel Urrestarazu

Pelemix ® CF substrate, the physical characteristics of which have been described by Rodríguez et al. (2014) , and silica sand with a granulometry of 0.5 to 1.0 mm in diameter. Vegetative development was evaluated on 1 Sept. 2017. The planting density

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Alexander R. Kowalewski, John N. Rogers III, James R. Crum, and Jeffrey C. Dunne

associated with compaction can reduce turfgrass quality, percentage of cover, total nonstructural carbon, shoot density, verdure, and root growth ( Carrow, 1980 ). Sand has a relatively large volume of macropore space and is inherently low in silt and clay

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Sangho Jeon, Charles S. Krasnow, Gemini D. Bhalsod, Blair R. Harlan, Mary K. Hausbeck, Steven I. Safferman, and Wei Zhang

operate in commercial greenhouses. In contrast, filtration is a low-cost method that disinfests irrigation water by the physical removal of pathogens using granular porous media (e.g., sand) or membrane filters ( Hong and Moorman, 2005 ). Membrane

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Joan R. Davenport and Daniel E. Schiffhauer

Surface sand application to cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is commonly practiced for a combination of vine and insect management. However, the efficacy of sanding on crop production has been poorly documented. This study determined the effect of three rates of sand application using a barge sanding technique on two different cultivars—`Early Black' and `Stevens'. Beds were sanded to a depth of 0, 1.3, or 2.5 cm in November and monitored at the end of the following three growing seasons for yield, berry weight, and upright distribution. The 2.5-cm sanding rate adversely affected yield in `Early Black' during the first two growing seasons. In `Stevens' yields were not reduced until the third season and then only by the 2.5-cm rate. Although the 2.5-cm sanding rate increased vegetative upright density in both cultivars in the first growing season, yield and number of fruiting uprights were not significantly influenced the next year. Application of 1.3 cm of sand could improve insect pest management without negatively impacting yields of `Early Black' and `Stevens'.

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B.W. Roberts and C.W. O'Hern

Solid particles in water such as sand, silt, clay, or organic debris can clog drip irrigation systems. Filters that remove these particles from the water are necessary, but expensive, for small-scale or part-time farmers. A falter that is functionally similar to commercial units can be built from a steel barrel and common plumbing supplies for about $100. Components and instructions to build such a falter are presented here.

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Zhengwang Jiang, Feiyan Tang, Hongwen Huang, Hongju Hu, and Qiliang Chen

The sand pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most important fruit tree crops in China and is extensively cultivated in central and southwest China. The species occurs naturally in southern and western China, recognized as the center of

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Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, Catherine M. Grieve, James Poss, and Michael A. Mellano

saline irrigation waters with and without pH control on growth, quality, resprouting ability of the tuberous roots, and nutrient concentration of ranunculus plants cultivated in sand cultures. Materials and Methods Ranunculus ‘Yellow ASD’ and ‘Pink CTD

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Claudia Calonje, Chad Husby, and Michael Calonje

-based coarse building sand (6/20 grade; Florida Silica and Sand Company, Ft. Lauderdale, FL), and expanded clay pellets (Hydroton® 8/16 mm grade; Ökotau Easy Green GmbH, Eschborn, Germany) as a substrate for both seed germination and nursery container culture

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Bernadine C. Strik and Arthur P. Poole

The effect of sand application to `Stevens' cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) was studied for 3 years in a 24-year-old (site 1) and an 8-year-old (site 2) commercial planting. Treatments in Apr. 1991 consisted of a onetime sand application of 1.3 or 2.5 cm on the surface of the cranberry bed and a nonsanded control. Yield component data were collected in Fall 1991 through 1993. In 1991, 2.5 cm of sand reduced yield 50% at site 2 compared to the nonsanded control. At site 1, the 2.5-cm sand depth did not reduce yield, while the 1.3-cm-deep application improved yield 18% compared to the control. The year after sanding (1992), yields equalized across all treatments at both sites. In 1993, there was no significant difference in yield for treatments at site 1. At site 2, however, heavy sanding reduced yield 63% compared to 1.3 cm of sand. Our work suggests that heavy sanding is not recommended for `Stevens' cranberry beds in Oregon.

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Lailiang Cheng and Richard Raba

-grown trees for determining nutrient requirements is to grow apple trees in a sand culture to achieve optimal tree nutrient status, high yield, and good quality so that the amount of nutrients accumulated by these trees can be interpreted as nutrient