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Nathan Phillips, Andrew Reynolds, and Frederick Di Profio

amounts of soluble sugars appear during winter depending on temperature ( Zapata et al., 2004 ). Soluble sugars consist primarily of sucrose, glucose, and fructose; however, oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose are also present in winter ( Jones et al

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Yansheng Li, Ming Du, Qiuying Zhang, Guanghua Wang, Jian Jin, Stephen Herbert, and Xiaobing Liu

(250 mm × 4 mm i.d.) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL·min −1 . The mobile phase was distilled water. The detection was accomplished using a RI2414 detector. Commercial sugars, including glucose, fructose, sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose, purchased from Sigma

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W. Roland Leatherwood, D. Mason Pharr, Lisa O. Dean, and John D. Williamson

sucrose, glucose, and fructose), the raffinose family oligosaccharides [RFOs (such as stachyose and raffinose)], and polyols (such as sorbitol, pinitol, and mannitol). For instance, simple sugars not only act as osmolytes but can also stabilize membranes

Open access

Levis W. Handley, David M. Pharr, and Roger F. McFeeters

Abstract

Galactinol synthase was assayed from leaves of 24 different accessions (20 species), maturing seeds of soybean, and cotyledons of germinating cucumber seeds. Leaf tissue contained concentrations of raffinose ranging from not detectable to 0.36 mg/g fresh weight (gfw) and stachyose ranging from not detectable to 1.39 mg/gfw. Galactinol synthase activity from leaves was correlated with the proportion of total sugar present as raffinose saccharides. In maturing soybean seeds, the appearance of galactinol synthase coincided with the biosynthesis of the galactosyl-sugars. Cucumber seeds contained high levels of raffinose and stachyose which decreased in the cotyledon during germination to a steady-state level coincident with the appearance of galactinol synthase.

Open access

D. M. Pharr, H. N. Sox, E. L. Smart, R. L. Lower, and H. P. Fleming

Abstract

Leaves of Cucumis sativus L. contained predominantly, non-reducing sugars which included verbascose, stachyose, raffinose and sucrose. Glucose and fructose were also present. The major sugars of fruit were glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Stachyose was present in small fruit (5 to 7 g fresh weight), but no soluble galactose-containing saccharides were found in larger fruit. Other plant parts also contained the raffinose saccharides. The identities of these sugars were established by partial enzymatic hydrolysis and paper chromatographic examination of the hydrolytic products. Four species of lactic acid bacteria from cucumber fermentations were able to ferment stachyose, raffinose, sucrose, melibiose, galactose, glucose, and fructose.

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Paul H. Jennings and Cecil Stushnoff

Various carbohydrates have been shown to be associated with stress tolerance in some plant species. Specifically, the content of soluble sugars have been correlated with desiccation tolerance and winter hardiness. We have previously demonstrated that radicles of cucumber seed become progressively more sensitive to chilling injury during the early stages of germination and that cultivar differences exist. Sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose contents of `Poinsett 76' and `Ashley' seed were determined in dry seed during imbibition and at three stages of radicle emergence. The more chilling-tolerant cultivar (Ashley) contained lower raffinose and higher stachyose contents than the less chilling-tolerant `Poinsett 76'. In both cultivars, the contents of raffinose and stachyose declined dramatically between the 1-mm and 5- to 7-mm stage of radicle emergence. At the 1-mm stage, when cultivar chilling-tolerance differences are most pronounced, `Ashley' appears to have a higher content of stachyose and lower raffinose content.

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Bruce W. Wood

[retention time (RT) = 7.0 min, fructose (RT = 7.6 min), sorbitol (RT = 8.4 min), glucose (RT = 9.0 min), sucrose (RT = 10.5 min), raffinose (RT = 13.7 min), and stachyose (RT = 16.6 min)] based on the same retention times exhibited by both pure and mixed

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Gayle M. Volk, Edith E. Haritatos, and Robert Turgeon

Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) perform several physiological functions in plants. In addition to accumulating during seed formation, raffinose and stachyose are translocated in the phloem and may accumulate in response to low temperatures, drought, or salt stress. Although the synthesis of galactinol, as mediated by galactinol synthase (GAS), is the first committed step in RFO formation, its expression patterns are poorly understood in most species. We have cloned and characterized the expression of two galactinol synthase gene family members in melon (Cucumis melo L. Cantalupensis Group). Both CmGAS1 and CmGAS2 are highly expressed in mature leaves. Galactinol synthase transcription in leaves was not upregulated by either water or low temperature stresses. Transcripts of CmGAS1 were present in developing melon seeds at a time coincident with the formation of raffinose and stachyose. Based on the GAS expression and RFO accumulation patterns, we propose that RFOs in melon function in carbon translocation and seed desiccation tolerance.

Open access

Daniel C. Adjei-Twum, Walter E. Splittstoesser, and Joseph S. Vandemark

Abstract

During a 6 day sprouting period, carbohydrates and lipids decreased in soybean seeds (Glycine max L.). Stachyose and raffinose which are not digestible by humans, decreased about 80% in 3 days and disappeared in 6 days. Protein decreased slightly while amino acids increased rapidly. Taste acceptability of 3-day-old soybean sprouts and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek var. radiata) sprouts were similar.

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Virgil Esensce and Daniel I. Leskovar

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea, L. cv. `Ark88-354'. `Fall Green', `Cascade') seeds of varying sensitivities to high temperatures during imbibition and germination were subjected to constant 18, 30 and 36°C for 96 hours during imbibition. Those cultivars less sensitive to high temperatures (`Ark88-354' and `Fall Green') imbibed water more rapidly at higher temperatures and had greater initial levels of raffinose and sucrose than the sensitive cultivar `Cascade'. Glucose levels were initially zero in all cultivars and increased slightly with time. Germination was more rapid at 18°C and 30°C in `Ark88-354' and `Fall Green' than with `Cascade'; the latter also failed 10 germinate at the higher temperature. Raffinose and sucrose have been implicated in membrane stabilization during desiccation and extreme low temperatures. They may serve a similar role during imbibition and germination of spinach at high temperatures, reducing secondary thermodormancy.