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Kristin L. Getter and Dale W. Rozeboom

amendment to lower costs. This preliminary study looked at the effectiveness of using this compost as a floriculture substrate amendment for ornamental plant container production. Material and methods Animal tissue compost was produced in a composting

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John M. Ruter

A study was conducted with Lagerstroemia indica x fauriei `Acom a' to evaluate methods for reducing rooting-out problems in a PIP production system. The products tested were Biobarrier™, a geotextile fabric impregnated with trifluralin; Root Control'” fabric bag material; and Spin Out™, a commercial formulation of copper hydroxide (7.1%) in latex paint. Biobarrier™ reduced plant height, shoot dry weight, percent root dry weight outside of the planted container and total biomass compared to the non-treated control. For the control, 7.1% of the total root dry weight was found between the holder pot and planted container compared to 0.2% for the Biobarrier™ treatment. When the holder pot and planted container or the planted container and Root Control™ fabric were both treated with Spin Out™, plant height and shoot dry weight were reduced. Spin Out™ reduced root circling on the sidewalls of the planted containers but not on the bottom of the containers. All treatments except the control reduced rooting-out to a degree that allowed for the manual harvesting of the planted container from the holder pot after seven months in the field.

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Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Andrew K. Koeser, Guihong Bi, Victoria Anderson, Krista Jacobsen, Renee Conneway, Sven Verlinden, Ryan Stewart, and Sarah T. Lovell

biocontainers HortTechnology 21 155 161 Ingram, D.L. Nambuthiri, S. 2012 Using plantable containers for selected ground-cover plant production HortScience 47 S26 (abstr.) McKay, H.M. 1996 A review of the effect of stresses between lifting and planting on nursery

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Charles R. Hall, Benjamin L. Campbell, Bridget K. Behe, Chengyan Yue, Roberto G. Lopez, and Jennifer H. Dennis

). Groups of consumers create markets. Thus, market segments have characteristics that can be quantified and distinguishable. Consumers think and act differently in response to ideas and products; ornamental plant containers are no different. Consumers

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B.A. Kratky

Total salable yields of `Vendor' greenhouse tomatoes produced with 4 non-circulating, hydroponic methods were not significantly different from yields produced with conventional soil bed culture (5.69 kg/plant).

Three methods employed a capillary, sub-irrigated system wherein the plant container rested in a shallow, covered, polyethylene-lined tank containing 5 cm of nutrient solution. Plant containers consisted of 7 and 25 liter plastic pots containing a 1 hapuu:2 cinder medium plus 1 and 2 plants, respectively, and rockwool blocks (7.5 × 7.5 × 6.5 cm) resting on larger rockwool blocks (15 × 15 × 7.5 cm).

The fourth method consisted of rockwool blocks (7.5 × 7.5 × 6.5 cm) resting on a screen placed in a covered, 20 cm deep, polyethylene-lined tank filled with nutrient solution.

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L.V. Purvis, B.K. Behe, C.H. Gilliam, and J.L. Adrian

Product packaging influences consumer's purchase decisions, yet this influence is not defined for ornamental horticultural products. The objective of this study was to determine consumer preferences for three types of nursery plant containers: field ball and burlap, fabric bag, and polyethylene. Uniform Magnolia grandiflora and Photinia fraserii (1-2 m) grown in gro-bags ware either containerized in black polyethylene pots, wrapped to simulate traditional ball and burlap, or kept in fabric begs. Seventy-four consumers from Montgomery, Ala., were asked to indicate their preferences. Most (48%) preferred the polyethylene container, followed by the fabric bag (27%), ball and burlap (19%). These data suggest that fabric bags have similar consumer appeal compared to ball and burlap. Plants in polyethylene containers likely appeared healthier and more vigorous because they held more soil, retained more moisture, and gave plants a better appearance.

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James L. Green

In intensive, open horticultural crop production systems, quantities of water and soluble fertilizers are convected by gravitational and evaporative flow through the plant root zone, with only a small fraction being captured by the plant root system. Principles and concepts developed in creating a protected diffusion zone (PDZ) within the closed, insulated pallet system (CIPS) have been extrapolated to create a protected zone for fertilizer diffusion in a surface-irrigated plant container or open field/landscape planting. Incorporating additional evaporative and gravitational water flow barriers has resulted in a semiclosed field system to minimize quantities of water and fertilizer applied and lost from the plant root zone. Use of saline water is more feasible in PDZ system than in open systems.

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James L. Green, James A. Robbins, and Bruce A. Briggs

A closed, insulated, pallet production system (CIPPS) has been designed to meet current challenges: 1) Elimination of production related pollution. 2) Reduction and conservation of resources. 3) Improvement of working conditions. 4) Alternatives to pesticides. 5) Prevention of temperature extremes and rapid temperature fluctuations in the plant environment. Biological feasibility of CIPPS was established in research on pathogen epidemiology, water and fertilize efficiency, plant growth and development in CIPPS. Water and fertilizer ion movement-removal in the closed system was plant-driven in response to growth and transpiration; water and fertilizer use in CIPS was 10% of that applied to open containers. Growth of 28 plant species ranging from herbaceous annuals to woody perennials was greater in CIPPS than in control, individual containers. Phytophthora cinnamomi did not spread from inoculated to noninoculated plants within CIPPS. Inoculation with nonpathogenic bacteria increased plant growth (gfw) in CIPPS but not in open plant containers.

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Sven E. Svenson

Extensive growth of liverwort (typically Marchantia sp.) on the surface of the growing medium in plant containers is a serious problem in many nursery and greenhouse operations. A spray application of cinnamic aldehyde at 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, or 1% a.i. was applied to uninfested 4-inch-diameter containers, and to containers infested with Marchantia polymorpha. Application to uninfested containers delayed liverwort establishment for an additional 1, 2, and 4 weeks at the 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% applications rates, respectively, compared to the 0% control. Ten days after application, 0%, 70%, 95%, and 100% of liverwort thalli covering the growing medium surface of infested containers were killed by the 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, or 1% application, respectively. However, only the 1% rate also killed the gemmae cups growing on the thalli surface. Regrowth of liverwort began 2, 3, and 5 weeks following application, respectively. Prevention of infestations is desirable, as dead liverworts are less attractive than live growth. No phytotoxicity symptoms were observed on Rhododendron growing in the treated containers.

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Heather Hasandras, Kimberly A. Moore, and Lyn A. Gettys

Native aquatic plants are important to maintaining a balanced ecosystem, but they often are displaced by exotic invasive plant species. The research on the control and growth of the invasive aquatic species hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) using sand substrates and controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) provides a potential production technique for other aquatic plants. We questioned if we could use hydrilla production techniques to grow southern naiad (Najas guadalupensis), a Florida-native aquatic plant that is often mistaken for hydrilla. We grew southern naiad cuttings in containers filled with 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, or 0:100 coarse builder’s sand and sphagnum moss (by volume). Before planting, containers were fertilized with 0, 1, 2, or 4 g·kg−1 CRF (15N–4P–10K). Containers were submerged in large storage tubs filled with rainwater and grown for 8 weeks. Southern naiad shoot dry weight was greater in the 100% sand substrate than that in the 0% sand substrate. Substrate electrical conductivity (EC) levels were greater in the 0% sand with no difference among the other substrates. Shoot and root dry weight of plants fertilized with 1–2 g·kg−1 CRF were greater than 0 or 4 g·kg−1 CRF. Substrate EC also increased as fertilizer rate increased, with the highest EC observed at 4 g·kg−1 CRF. Based on our results, we would suggest growing southern naiad in substrates with 100% sand and fertilized with 1–2 g·kg−1 CRF.