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James S. Owen Jr, Stuart L. Warren, Ted E. Bilderback, and Joseph P. Albano

in bark and peat-based substrates ( Handreck and Black, 2002 ; Reed, 1996 ). Empirically, Warren and Bilderback (1992) compared rates (0, 27, 54, 67, and 81 kg·m −3 ) of arcillite in a pine bark substrate and reported arcillite increased available

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J.G. Williamson and E.P. Miller

expansion of southern highbush blueberry acreage targeted for this early market is anticipated ( Strik and Yarborough, 2005 ; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2007 ; Williamson and Lyrene 2004a ). Pine bark culture is currently the most common method for

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Nastaran Basiri Jahromi, Amy Fulcher, Forbes Walker, James Altland, Wesley Wright, and Neal Eash

-rich by-product of pyrolysis, can reduce substrate pore size by nesting between larger particles of pine bark and providing greater water-holding capacity. This reduction in substrate pore size has been demonstrated to increase the amount of available

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Andrea C. Landaverde, Jacob H. Shreckhise, and James E. Altland

evaluate the effect of storage duration, storage temperature, and filtration before storage on pH, EC, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), and nutrient ion concentrations of PT samples of pine bark– and peat-based substrates

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, Jake F. Browder, J. Roger Harris, and Alex X. Niemiera

). Of these, research and development of new substrates to replace conventionally used peatmoss and pine bark (PB) substrates have increased in recent years. In addition to developing and using new substrates, much work has focused on managing fertility

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and John R. Seiler

substrates ( Aaron, 1982 ; Hoitink and Poole, 1979 ). Recently, supplies of pine bark (PB) in many areas across the southeastern states have been erratic. Reduced availability and higher costs have been driven by the reduced supply resulting from decreased

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Nastaran Basiri Jahromi, Forbes Walker, Amy Fulcher, James Altland, and Wesley C. Wright

leaching. The objective of this research was to provide a preliminary assessment of the effect of biochar amendment to a pine bark–based container substrate on water and nutrient leaching for a low and high water use woody species. Materials and Methods The

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R.A. Mirabello, A.E. Einert, and G.L. Klingaman

The use of shredded bark, wood chips, and other organic mulches to conserve water and moderate soil temperatures is a common practice in landscape maintenance. Four mulch materials (cottonseed hulls, cypress pulp, pine bark, and pine straw) were examined to determine effects on plant growth and soil conditions in annual flower beds during a 1-year rotation of warm season to cool season annuals. Inhibited plant growth was observed in pine bark treatments at the conclusion of the growing season for both plantings. Effects on soil conditions were insignificant over the year-long study in pine bark treatments. To further investigate potential phytotoxic effects of pine bark and other mulch used in the initial study, a seed bioassay was performed to determine the influence of mulch extracts in solution on germination and primary root elongation.

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Jeffrey G. Williamson and E. Paul Miller

Bearing `Misty' and `Star' southern highbush blueberries were grown on pine bark beds and fertilized at three rates using granular and liquid fertilizers with a 3–1–2 (1N–0.83K–0.88P) ratio. Granular fertilizer was applied 8 times per year at 4-week intervals beginning in April and continuing through October. Liquid fertilizer was applied with low volume irrigation 16 times per year at 2-week intervals during the same period. During the growing season, irrigation was applied at 2- to 3-day intervals in the absence of rain. A 2 cultivar × 2 fertilizer type × 3 fertilizer rate factorial arrangement of treatments was replicated 8 times in a randomized complete-block design. All fruits were harvested from single-plant plots at 3- to 4-day intervals. Canopy volume was not affected by fertilizer type, but fruit yield was slightly greater for granular than for liquid fertilizer treatments. In 2003, fruit yield of 2.5-year-old `Misty' and `Star' plants increased with increasing fertilizer rates up to the highest rate tested (50 g N/plant/year). Similarly, in 2004, fruit yields increased with increasing fertilizer rates up to the highest rate (81 g N/plant/year). Root distribution was limited to the 12-cm-deep layer of pine bark with very few roots penetrating into the underlying soil. The positive growth responses of blueberry plants to high fertilizer rates in pine bark beds suggests that soluble fertilizer was leached through the pine bark layer into the soil below the root zone. More frequent, lighter applications of soluble fertilizers, use of slow-release or controlled-release fertilizers, and careful irrigation management may improve fertilizer use efficiency of blueberry plantings on pine bark beds.

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Graham J. Wright and Irwin E. Smith

Composted pine bark is one of the most important substrates used in the seedling industry today. Previous work suggested the availability of inherent Potassium (K) in the bark. This research confirmed the availability of K and indicated that little or no K is needed for seedling production when pine bark is used as a substrate. Pre-enrichment rates ranged from 0 to 460 g.K.m-3, with a supplemental solution application of 0 to 200 mg.K.l-1. No evidence of K deficiencies or toxicities were detected. Three K sources, KCl, KNO3, and K2SO4 were used in the pre-enrichment of the bark. No differences were noted for top fresh mass, seedling height, root dry mass, root to shoot ratio and percentage moisture. Seedlings grown in treatments without and supplementary K showed tissue contents of 162.5 mg.K.kg-1. This research suggests the possibility of reducing the levels of-K applied to seedlings grown in a composted pine bark substrate.