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Philip J. Brown, Lambert B. McCarty, Virgil L. Quisenberry, L. Ray Hubbard Jr., and M. Brad Addy

recommendations ( McCarty et al., 2016 ). Sand and fines from the native soil were then mixed uniformly in increments increasing by 10% v/v to create 11 different soil mixtures ranging from 100:0 to 0:100 sand:soil ( Table 1 ). Table 1. Physical properties of 11

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Charles L. Murdoch and David L. Hensley

Physical properties (particle size distribution, bulk density, capillary pore space, non-capillary pore space, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention) of three imported silica sands (Perth, Malaysian, and Newcastle), a man-made sand product (Mansand), and coral sand alone and in peatmoss mixtures were determined to evaluate their suitability as golf-green substrates. Based on laboratory evaluation of physical properties, the silica sands amended with peatmoss (15%) were superior to coral sand or crushed basalt (Mansand) amended with 15% peatmoss for use in high-traffic turfgrass areas.

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Mohammed B. Tahboub, William C. Lindemann, and Leigh Murray

and leaching. Organic amendments improve soil physical properties by increasing waterholding capacity, soil aggregation, soil aeration, and permeability and decreasing soil crusting and bulk density ( Oades, 1984 ; Tisdall and Oades, 1982 ). Soil

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Lesley A. Judd, Brian E. Jackson, and William C. Fonteno

volume of substrate in which water, gas, and solute availability can fluctuate over a short period of time ( Polak and Wallach, 2001 ). Physical properties of substrates known to affect roots include AS, container capacity (CC), total porosity (TP

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Michael R. Evans and Leisha Vance

containing up to 30% ground feather fiber. However, no information was reported regarding how the inclusion of the feather fiber affected the physical properties of the substrates. The objective of this study was to determine whether the incorporation of

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Shugang Zhao, Jiamin Niu, Linying Yun, Kai Liu, Shuang Wang, Jing Wen, Hongxia Wang, and ZhiHua Zhang

paraffin sections and cryosections, and the relationship among the structure, components, and physical properties were illuminated. The aim of this study was to ascertain the influence of shell structure and components on the physical properties of the

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Michael W. Olszewski, Marion H. Holmes, and Courtney A. Young

properties of shallow-depth substrates and their relationship to initial plant growth. Greenhouse and laboratory trials were conducted to determine the physical properties of substrates with increasing concentrations of compost and hydrogel, and to evaluate

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and Michael C. Barnes

as a result of their manufacturing process and physical properties) and were derived from a mixture of various tree species, primarily spruce ( Picea abies L.). Jackson and Wright (2008) and Jackson et al. (2008) report no significant visual

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and John R. Seiler

[CC; which is the equivalent to the waterholding capacity (WHC) of a substrate] during crop production so that growing conditions remain favorable for plant growth. Physical properties of substrates considered appropriate for plant growth at planting

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Stephanie A. Beeks and Michael R. Evans

of the research conducted on the physical properties of biocontainers has been focused on short-term crops such as annual bedding plants grown using overhead irrigation systems. However, many greenhouse crops are grown as potted florist crops that