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John M. Capik and Thomas J. Molnar

blight, p. 44–46. In: Teviotdale, B.L., T.J. Michailides, and J.W. Pscheidt (eds.). Compendium of nut crop diseases in temperate zones. APS Press, Paul, MN Johnson, K.B. Pinkerton, J.N. Mehlenbacher, S.A. Stone, J.K. Pscheidt, J.W. 1996 Eastern filbert

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Thomas J. Molnar and John M. Capik

Hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana ) are a major tree nut crop ranking fifth in world production behind cashews ( Anacardium occidentale ), almonds ( Prunus dulcis ), walnuts ( Juglans regia ), and chestnuts ( Castanea sp.). The top hazelnut

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Megan F. Muehlbauer, Josh A. Honig, John M. Capik, Jennifer N. Vaiciunas, and Thomas J. Molnar

.N. 2002 Eastern filbert blight, p. 44–46. In: Teviotdale, B.L., T.J. Michailides, and J.W. Pscheidt (eds.). Compendium of nut crop diseases in temperate zones. APS Press, St. Paul, MN Johnson, K.B. Pinkerton, J.N. Mehlenbacher, S.A. Stone, J.K. Pscheidt, J

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John M. Capik and Thomas J. Molnar

(eds.). Compendium of nut crop diseases in temperate zones. APS Press, St. Paul, MN Julian, J. Seavert, C. Olsen, J.L. 2009 An economic evaluation of the impact of eastern filbert blight resistant cultivars in Oregon, U.S.A Acta Hort. 845 725 732 10

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Wheeler G. Foshee III, Eugene K. Blythe, William D. Goff, Wilson H. Faircloth, and Michael G. Patterson

A field experiment was conducted from 1995 to 1999 in central Alabama to determine the effect of repeated applications of glyphosate herbicide on young ‘Sumner’ pecan trees. Herbicide treatments were applied on ‘Sumner’ pecan trees varying in age from newly established (first growing season) to established fourth-year growing season trees. Measurements taken included tree mortality, trunk cross-sectional area, nut yield, and nut quality in the third and fourth years of the study. Glyphosate applications were targeted at the lowest 5 to 8 cm of the tree trunk (“standard” treatment), a percentage (lowest 33%, 67%, or 100%) of the tree trunk below the first scaffold limb, or a percentage (lowest 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100%) of tree foliage to simulate situations ranging from minor spray drift to major misapplication. No adverse effects were detected when glyphosate was applied to trunks, regardless of tree age. However, repeated application of glyphosate to 75% to 100% of tree foliage resulted in a significant reduction of growth and, in some cases, tree death. Results indicate that limited contact of glyphosate with the lowest 5 to 8 cm of the trunk of the young pecan tree, which usually occurs during conventional orchard weed management, is unlikely to result in adverse effects on young pecan trees.

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William D. Goff, Leslie R. Brasher, and Mark S. West

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William D. Goff

Triphenyltin hydroxide fungicide sprays were applied at 114, 455, or 910 g·ha-1 either 0, 1, 3, 5, or 10 times during pollination of `Success' pecans [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Pretreatment flower counts were compared to post-treatment fruit counts 7 and 9 weeks after pollination to determine if chemical rate or application frequency affected fruit set. There were no significant differences among rates, application frequency, or combinations in fruit drop (P > 0.35 in all cases). indicating that spraying this chemical did triphenyltin hydroxide (fentin hydroxide).

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William D. Goff, Michael G. Patterson, and Mark S. West

Nutrient status of young pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] trees grown under eight combinations of orchard floor management and irrigation was determined by leaf and soil analyses. Orchard floor management practices were weedy-unmowed, weedy-mowed, weed control with herbicides, and weed control by disking, with trees either irrigated or nonirrigated. The element most affected by treatment was K. Mean leaf K for the two sample years was significantly (P < 0.01) lower in the weedy plots (0.56% K) than in those where weeds were controlled (0.76% K), suggesting a highly competitive effect of weeds for K with young pecan trees. Weed competition also suppressed leaf Ca and Mg, but presence of weeds or sod resulted in higher soil pH and higher leaf Zn. Leaf concentrations of N, P, B, Cu, and Fe were not significantly affected by the treatments.

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J.G. Clapp Jr.

Urea-triazone-based nitrogen (N) solutions were evaluated for potential leaf injury on agronomic and horticultural crops at 61 commercial grower sites throughout the United States. Poliar spray solutions containing triazone N were used at concentrations ranging from 1.5% to 15.7%. Safe N concentrations for urea-triazone-based N products ranged from 1.5% for crops such as sweet corn, apple, cherry, and pear, and up to 15.7% for nursery root stocks. Urea-triazone-based N solutions were found to be much safer on crop foliage than ammonium-, nitrate-, and/or all urea-based foliar fertilizer products than reported in the literature.

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Charles G. Summers, Albert S. Newton Jr., and Kyle R. Hansen

Six table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars and 10 species of tree fruit were evaluated in cage tests to determine their susceptibility to colonization by the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring). The table grape cultivars Thompson Seedless, Perlette, Flame Seedless, Ruby Seedless, Christmas Rose, and Redglobe were all colonized. In a field nursery, with naturally occurring silverleaf whitefly populations, `Zinfandel', `Sirah', and `Chardonnay' were more heavily colonized than were `Merlot', `Thompson Seedless', or `Redglobe'. The tree crops `Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.), `Calimyrna' fig (Ficus carica L.), `Nonpareil' almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb], and `Fuyu' persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) were colonized in cage tests. Silverleaf whitefly failed to establish colonies on caged `O'Henry' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.], `Fantasia' nectarine [P. persica (L.) Batsch. var. nectarina (Ait.f.) Maxim.], `Casselman' plum (P. salicina Lindl.), `Tilton' apricot (P. armeniaca L.), `Granny Smith' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), and `Hayward' kiwifruit [Actinidia delicoisa (A. Chevalier) C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson].