Tagging Genes for Nematode Resistance and Tree Growth in Peach.” Provision of the F 2 population HB × Oki by Craig Ledbetter, USDA-ARS, is gratefully acknowledged. Information regarding microsatellite pchgms1 and the L×N CAPs marker was provided by Albert
Anne M. Gillen and Fred A. Bliss
Resistance against the beet cyst nematode (BCN) has been introduced into cultivated sugar beet from wild beet by conventional breeding. The first gene effective against the BCN, Hs1pro-1, was isolated from the sugar beet translocation line A906001. It is assumed that a second nematode resistance gene, Hs1pro-1, is present in the translocation line PRO3, which does not carry Hs1pro-1 but still imparts complete resistance against the nematode and resides in the overlapping region between the two lines. The overall goal of this study was to construct a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library to facilitate the cloning of Hs1pro-1. A BAC library from PRO3 was constructed containing 45,041 clones with an average insert size of 108.36 kb. Screening of the library with organelle specific probes indicated less than 1% mitochondrial and 4% chloroplast DNA content. The library covers 6.17 genome equivalents which provides a 99.76% probability of recovering any specific sequence present in the genome.
S. Alan Walters and Todd C. Wehner
Root-knot caused by Meloidogyne spp. is the primary disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in North Carolina, causing an annual yield loss of approximately 12 %. All cucumber cultivars we have tested are resistant to M. hapla, but none are resistant to any of the four important nematodes found on cucumber in North Carolina: M. incognita, M. arenaria races 1 and 2, and M. javanica. However, we are preparing to release three cucumber inbreds with resistance to four out of five of those nematodes. `Marion' (NC-44), `Shelby' (NC-45), and `Lucia' (NC-46) are high yielding, monoecious pickling cucumber inbreds that have resistance to M. arenaria races 1 and 2, M. javanica, and M. hapla. Length: diameter ratio was 3.4, 3.0, 3.9 for `Marion', `Shelby', `Lucia' (`Calypso' was 2.9 in the same trial), respectively. Thus, different length requirements for the pickling industry can be met with the three cultivars. Based on the 1995 North Carolina stage 1 pickle trial, performance (as % of `Calypso') for `Marion', `Shelby', and `Lucia' respectively was 79%, 94%, and 115% for total fruit number/ha; 71%, 96%, and 113% for marketable fruit number/ha; and 102%, 84%, and 97% for fruit quality rating. Therefore, nematode resistant cultivars are available that match the performance of the gynoecious hybrid check cultivar for the region.
S. Alan Walters, Todd C. Wehner, and Kenneth R. Barkel
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and horned cucumber (C. metuliferus Naud.) germplasm were evaluated for their resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). All 24 C. metuliferus cultigens evaluated were resistant to all root-knot nematodes tested-M. incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood race 3, M. arenaria (Neal) Chitwood race 2, and M. hapla Chitwood. All 884 C. sativus cultigens (cultivars, breeding lines, and plant introduction accessions) tested were resistant to M. hapla and few to M. incognita race 3. Only 50 of 884 C. sativus cultigens evaluated were somewhat resistant to M. arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3. A retest of the most resistant C. sativus cultigens revealed that LJ 90430 [an accession of C. sativus var. hardwickii (R.) Alef.] and `Mincu' were the only cultigens that were moderately resistant to M. arenaria race 2. LJ 90430 was the only cultigen, besides the two retested C. metuliferus cultigens, that was resistant to M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood. All C. sativus cultigens retested, including LJ 90430, were highly susceptible to M. incognita races 1 and 3. The two C. metuliferus cultigens retested were highly resistant to all root-knot nematodes tested-M. arenaria race 2, M. incognita races 1 and 3, and M. javanica.
R. H. Sharpe, C. O. Hesse, B. F. Lownsbery, V. G. Perry, and C. J. Hansen
Five peach rootstock selections show immunity to root-knot nematode disease caused by Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood. These are the first peach rootstocks which remain free from galls when exposed to both these root-knot nematode species. They are derived from a 1949 cross in Chico, California, of Prunus davidiana Franch with a Chinese Peach.
Resistance to the species M. incognita and M. javanica depends on different genes. Resistance to the former was inherited as a monofactorial dominant. Resistance to M. javanica appeared dependent on 2 or more dominant genes in both ‘Okinawa’ and P. davidiana, but P. davidiana progenies were completely free from visible galls.
A third type of root-knot nematode was discovered in Florida in 1966. It reproduces readily on ‘Okinawa’, ‘Nemaguard’ and the other lines which have been selected for resistance or immunity to M. incognita and M. javanica.
Judy A. Thies, Richard L. Fery, John D. Mueller, Gilbert Miller, and Joseph Varne
Resistance of two sets of bell pepper [(Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum (Grossum Group)] cultivars near-isogenic for the N gene that conditions resistance to root-knot nematodes [Meloidogyne incognita (Chitwood) Kofoid and White, M. arenaria (Neal) Chitwood races 1 and 2, and M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood] was evaluated in field tests at Blackville, S.C. and Charleston, S.C. The isogenic bell pepper sets were `Charleston Belle' (NN) and `Keystone Resistant Giant' (nn), and `Carolina Wonder' (NN) and `Yolo Wonder B' (nn). The resistant cultivars Charleston Belle and Carolina Wonder were highly resistant; root galling was minimal for both cultivars at both test sites. The susceptible cultivars Keystone Resistant Giant and Yolo Wonder B were highly susceptible; root galling was severe at both test sites. `Charleston Belle' had 96.9% fewer eggs per g fresh root than `Keystone Resistant Giant', and `Carolina Wonder' had 98.3% fewer eggs per g fresh root than `Yolo Wonder B' (averaged over both test sites). `Charleston Belle' and `Carolina Wonder' exhibited a high level of resistance in field studies at both sites. These results demonstrate that resistance conferred by the N gene for root-knot nematode resistance is effective in field-planted bell pepper. Root-knot nematode resistant bell peppers should provide economical and environmentally compatible alternatives to methyl bromide and other nematicides for managing M. incognita.
Richard L. Fery and Philip D. Dukes
Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the inheritance of the high level of southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] resistance exhibited by `Carolina Hot' cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and to compare the genetic nature of this resistance to that exhibited by `Mississippi Nemaheart.' Evaluation of parental, F1, F2, and backcross generations of the cross `Mississippi Nemaheart' × `California Wonder' confirmed an earlier published report that the `Mississippi Nemaheart' resistance is conditioned by a single dominant gene. Evaluation of parental, F1, F2, and backcross generations of a cross between highly resistant and highly susceptible lines selected from a heterogeneous `Carolina Hot' population indicated that the resistance exhibited by `Carolina Hot' is conditioned by two genes, one dominant and one recessive. Evaluation of the parental and F2 populations of a cross between `Mississippi Nemaheart' and the highly resistant `Carolina Hot' line indicated that the dominant resistance gene in `Mississippi Nemaheart' is allelic to the dominant resistance gene in `Carolina Hot.' Comparison of the data that were collected on the parental lines in the latter cross demonstrated the superior nature of the resistance exhibited by `Carolina Hot.' The presence of the second resistance gene in `Carolina Hot' probably accounted for the higher level of resistance. The ease and reliability of evaluating plants for resistance to root-knot nematodes and the availability of a simply inherited source of resistance makes breeding for southern root-knot nematode resistance a viable objective in pepper breeding programs. This objective should be readily obtainable by the application of conventional plant breeding methodologies.
Judy A. Thies, Don W. Dickson, and Richard L. Fery
, NC Thies, J.A. Fery, R.L. 1998 Modified expression of the N gene for southern root-knot nematode resistance in pepper at high soil temperatures J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 123 1012 1015 Thies, J
A. G. Hunter and O. L. Chambliss
Screening for resistance to blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BlCMV) and rootknot nematode on the same plant is possible if the two pathogens do not interact significantly. To determine if such interactions were present four cultivars were planted in 72-cell styrofoam flats, with a combination of BlCMV and nematode inoculations (--, -+, +-, and ++). `Freezegreen' is known to be susceptible to both pathogens, `Mississippi Silver' is resistant to both, `California Blackeye #5' is susceptible to BlCMV, and `Worthmore' is resistant to BlCMV. Nematode treated seeds were inoculated at planting with 2,000 eggs of (Meloidogyne incognita Race 3); BlCMV was inoculated on primary leaves a week later. Plants were visually rated for symptoms: either negative or positive for BlCMV and 1-5, no galls and heavily galled respectively, for rootknot. Analyses of variance using percentage of plants negative for virus symptoms or average nematode score as the dependent variable, resulted in non-significant virus × nematode interactions. Results by cultivar indicated simultaneous screening did not change their resistance/susceptible classifications.
George Fassuliotis, J. R. Deakin, and J. C. Hoffman
Bush type snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with resistance to the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (cotton strain) are being developed by using PI-165426 as the resistant parent. PI-165426 (resistant), ‘Black Valentine’ (susceptible) and F5 breeding line B3864 (resistant) were inoculated with second-stage larvae. There were no significant differences in larval penetration of roots. Root tips showed slight swellings at infection loci of resistant and susceptible plants. Necrosis was evident in the resistant lines 4 days after inoculation. Histological studies of early infections showed that resistance was due to absence of adequate giant cell development and to hypersensitive reaction within the infected portion of the root. When soil temperature was changed from 16 to 28°C, galling, female development, and egg mass production in the resistant plants were increased.