.cornell.edu/usda/current/FlorCrop/FlorCrop-04-25-2013.pdf > Wang, Y.T. 2000 Impact of a high phosphorus fertilizer and timing of terminating fertilization on flowering of a hybrid moth orchid HortScience 35 60 62 Wang, Y.T. 2007 Potassium concentration affects growth and flowering of
Hadi Susilo, Ying-Chun Peng, and Yao-Chien Alex Chang
Yin-Tung Wang and Lori L. Gregg
Bare-root seedling plants of a white-flowered Phalaenopsis hybrid [P. arnabilis (L.) Blume × P. Mount Kaala `Elegance'] were grown in five potting media under three fertility levels (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 g·liter-1) from a 20N-8.6P-16.6K soluble fertilizer applied at every irrigation. The five media included 1) 1 perlite:1 Metro Mix 250:1 charcoal (by volume); 2)2 perlite:2 composted pine bark:1 vermiculite; 3) composted pine bark; 4) 3 perlite:3 Metro Mix 250:1 charcoal; and 5) 1 perlite:1 rockwool. During the first flowering season, plants in the 1 perlite: 1 Metro Mix 250:1 charcoal medium had slightly fewer but larger flowers and thicker stalks (section of the inflorescence between the base and oldest flower) than those in the 1 perlite:1 rockwool medium. Medium had no effect on stalk length. Two media (3 perlite: 3 Metro Mix 250: 1 charcoal and 1 perlite: 1 rockwool) resulted in root systems that were inferior to those in the others. Fertilizer level had no effect on bloom date or flower size. Regardless of medium, increasing the fertility from 0.25 to 1.0 g·liter-1 increased flower count, stalk diameter and length, and leaf production following flowering. During the second flowering season, media had limited effect on plant performance. Increased fertility promoted earlier inflorescence emergence and blooming. Higher fertilizer rates also caused a linear increase in the number of flowers and inflorescences per plant, and in stalk diameter, total leaf count, and leaf size.
Yin-Tung Wang and Tsung-Yao Hsu
Bare-root, mature, hybrid Phalaenopsis seedlings were dipped in one of three growth retardant solutions for 5 seconds or sprayed with a growth retardant 4 weeks following planting during inflorescence elongation. Dipping the entire plant in daminozide (2500, 5000, or 7500 mg·liter-1) before planting delayed flowering by 5-13 days, whereas foliar applications had no effect. Paclobutrazol (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg·liter-1) or uniconazole (25, 50, 100, or 200 mg·liter-1) dips did not affect the bloom date but effectively restricted inflorescence growth below the first flower (stalk). Increasing concentrations produced progressively less growth. Foliarly applied retardant treatments were less effective than dipping. Flower size, flower count, and stalk thickness were unaffected by treatments. Dipping in high concentrations of paclobutrazol (200 or 400 mg·liter-1) or uniconazole (100 or 200 mg·liter-1) caused plants to produce small, thick leaves. During the second bloom season, inflorescence emergence and bloom date were progressively delayed by increasing concentrations of paclobutrazol and uniconazole. Neither retardant affected flower count or size. Foliarly applied daminozide increased stalk length. In another experiment, foliar paclobutrazol treatment restricted stalk growth more effectively when sprayed before inflorescence emergence. Its effect progressively decreased when treatment was delayed. Paclobutrazol concentrations from 125 to 500 mg·liter-1 were equally effective in limiting stalk elongation when applied to the foliage. Chemical names used: butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); (E)-1- (p -chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3-ol(uniconazole); (2 RS, 3 RS) -1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1 H- 1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) pentan-3-ol (paclobutrazol).
Potted mature Phalaenopsis `Joseph Hampton' orchid (clone Diane) plants were placed in each of four growth chambers with 0, 8, 60, or 160 μmol·m–2·s–1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) for 12 hours daily and at 20C day/15C night air. Plants under 160 or 60 μmol·m–2·s–1 PPF began spiking (an elongating reproductive bud protruding through the base of its subtending leaf) in an average of 28 or 34 days, respectively. None of the plants placed under 0 or 8 μmol·m–2·s–1 PPF started spiking within 6 weeks. These plants, following return to a greenhouse, spiked and flowered 8 weeks later than those receiving 160 μmol·m–2·s–1. In a second experiment, plants were placed in each of three growth chambers and kept in complete darkness at 20C day/15C night for 2, 4, or 6 weeks before exposure to 160 μmol·m–2·s–1 PPF. Air was maintained at 20C day/15C night for an additional 6 weeks and then raised to 25C day/20C night to accelerate flowering. Plants exposed to 2, 4, or 6 weeks of darkness required 45, 60, or 77 days, respectively, to reach spiking. However, all plants spiked at similar times (31 to 35 days) after lighting began. Anthesis occurred at progressively later dates for plants placed in darkness for increasing durations, but plants in all treatments required 123 days to reach anthesis following their exposure to light. Flower count and size were not affected in both experiments.
Bare-root Phalaenopsis Blume orchids are frequently shipped by air freight intercontinentally. It was not known how temperature and duration in shipping affect their subsequent performance during greenhouse production. On 15 Sept., container-grown plants of vegetatively propagated Phalaenopsis (Atien Kaala Group) ‘TSC 22’ were removed from pots and individually weighed immediately. These bare-root plants were packed in cartons with shredded newspaper and placed in growth chambers at 15, 20, 25, or 30 °C in darkness. After 4, 7, and 14 days, one-third of the plants were removed from each temperature treatment, weighed, planted in pots, and then placed in a greenhouse. Weight loss increased with increasing air temperature and duration in storage. Chilling injury (CI) was more severe at 15 °C than 20 °C storage temperature and was progressively more severe as storage duration increased from 4 to 14 days. Plants had no sign of CI at 25 °C or 30 °C regardless of storage duration. Leaf loss was most severe on plants stored at 15 °C for 7 days (three leaves) or 14 days (five leaves) or at 30 °C for 14 days (three leaves). Storing plants 14 days or less between 15 °C and 25 °C did not affect the time of spiking (emergence of the flowering shoot), but at 30 °C, spiking was delayed by 5 to 8 days regardless of the duration. Storage resulted in reduced flower count, but not flower size, regardless of temperature and duration. In a second experiment, potted Phalaenopsis plants of the same clone were thermal-acclimatized in growth chambers in mid-September for 10 days at 25 °C followed by another 10 days at 20 °C before being stored in pots or bare-root at 15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, or 30 °C for 10 days. Thermal acclimatizing at 25 °C and 20 °C reduced the severity of CI and leaf loss after being stored for 10 days at 15 °C either bare-root or in pots, but did not reduce leaf loss resulting from heat at 30 °C. Repotting or storing bare-root plants did not affect spiking or flowering date under otherwise similar conditions. Nondisturbed plants in pots stored at temperatures between 20 °C and 30 °C for 10 d had higher flower count as compared with bare-root plants that were similarly stored. Spiking of nonacclimatized, bare-root plants was delayed after 10 days at either storage temperature, whereas flowering was delayed by 15 °C and 30 °C only. Bare-root Phalaenopsis orchids should be shipped near 25 °C during the warm period of the year and between 25 °C and 15 °C in the late fall through early spring to avoid CI or heat stress.
Jiunn-Yan Hou, Wei-Li Lin, Nean Lee, and Yao-Chien Alex Chang
Phalaenopsis flowers are prone to wilting under ethylene (C2H4) stress. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can protect Phalaenopsis flowers against ethylene injury. In this study, we determined the residual effect of 1-MCP and how it is affected by temperature. The efficacy of multiple applications of 1-MCP was also investigated. The residual effect of 1-MCP was determined by pretreating blooming Phalaenopsis amabilis plants with 0.8 μL·L−1 1-MCP for 8 hours on Day 0 followed by 2 μL·L−1 ethylene fumigation for 12 hours on designated days. Without 1-MCP pretreatment, flowers began to wilt within 2 days after exposure to ethylene. Duration of the residual protection of 1-MCP on P. amabilis was ≈6 to 8 days during summer in Taiwan. Lower temperatures after 1-MCP application prolonged protection times. The full protection times under day/night temperatures of 25/20, 20/15, and 15/13 °C were 4 to 8, 10 to 13, and 13 to 17 days, respectively. Furthermore, multiple applications of 1-MCP extended the duration of 1-MCP protection against ethylene. Three applications increased the residual protection of P. amabilis by 1-MCP to at least 24 days.
Young, bare-root plants (three leaves, 15 cm in leaf spread) from a vegetatively propagated clone of Phalaenopsis Blume x Taisuco Kochdian were imported in late May and planted in a mix consisting of three parts medium-grade Douglas fir bark and one part each of perlite and coarse peat (by volume) or in pure Chilean sphagnum moss. All plants were given 221 N, 124 P, 515 K, 100 Ca, and 50 Mg (all in mg·L−1) when being irrigated. The total N varied from 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, to 100% NO3-N with the balance being NH4-N. Plants were fertigated when the substrate became dry. For both substrates, as the percentage of NO3-N increased, plants produced slightly fewer leaves. Regardless of the NO3-N to NH4-N ratio, plants grown in moss produced one extra leaf than those planted in the bark mix during an 8-month period. There was a tendency of increasing top leaf length and width as well as the whole-plant leaf spread as NO3-N increased from 0% to 100% in either substrate. Plants receiving 50% or more NO3-N in either substrate spiked and flowered 2 weeks earlier than those given 25% or 0% NO3-N. When grown in the bark mix, flower count, flower diameter, and inflorescence length all increased as NO3-N increased from 0% to 75%. Flower stem (inflorescence, 5 cm from the base) became progressively thicker as NO3-N increased from 0% to 100%. Only two among the 24 plants grown in moss and receiving 100% NH4-N bloomed. These results suggest that Phalaenopsis does not grow well with 100% NH4-N and must be provided with NO3-N at no less than 50%, preferably 75%, of the total N for improved growth and flowering.
Jiunn-Yan Hou, William B. Miller, and Yao-Chien Alex Chang
Phalaenopsis is one of the most important ornamental crops and is frequently transported between continents. In this study, the effects of the duration and temperature of simulated dark shipping (SDS) and the temperature difference between cultivation greenhouses and shipping containers on the carbohydrate status and post-shipping performance were investigated. With a prolonged SDS from 0 to 40 days at 20 °C, the percentage of the vegetative Phalaenopsis Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’ plants with yellowed leaves increased from 0% to 50%, and the total carbohydrate contents in the shoot and roots gradually decreased over time. Furthermore, roots had greater reductions in glucose and fructose concentrations than the shoot after 40 days of SDS. After 7 days of SDS, the youngest bud and the nearly open bud on blooming plants of Phalaenopsis amabilis were found to be the most negatively affected among flowers and buds of all stages. These buds had lower soluble sugar concentrations and flower longevities compared with those of unshipped plants. The results of a temperature experiment showed that yellowing of the leaves and chilling injury (CI) occurred in Phalaenopsis Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’ after 21 days of SDS at 25 and 15 °C, respectively, regardless of pre-shipping temperature acclimation. However, 10 days of acclimation at 25/20 °C (day/night) before SDS reduced CI and reduced the time to inflorescence emergence. Higher accumulations of sucrose in the shoot and glucose and fructose in roots were found after 21 days of SDS at 15 °C compared with those at 25 and 20 °C. In conclusion, the carbohydrate status of Phalaenopsis was positively related to the post-performance quality. A reduction in the commercial quality after SDS may be attributed to a decline in carbohydrates. The optimal temperature for long-term dark shipping is 20 °C, and we recommend providing 10 days of lower-temperature acclimation (25/20 °C) before shipping to enhance the chilling tolerance and to promote early spiking of Phalaenopsis plants.
Renata Goossen and Kimberly A. Williams
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a well-known oxidizing agent often used as a remedy by consumers to treat algae and root decay from presumed root disease on interior plants, as well as to encourage root growth and health. To characterize the phytotoxic effects and define the safe concentration threshold for H2O2 use on ‘Vivaldi’ hybrid phalaenopsis orchid (hybrid Phalaenopsis), root systems were dipped for 3 minutes in 0%, 3%, 6%, or 12% H2O2 one time and observed in greenhouse conditions for the following 27 days. Root systems of each plant were assessed over time for percent visible root damage; ratings of root health on a scale of 1 to 5 points, with 5 points indicating “very healthy”; and final fresh and dry weights. To determine when symptoms manifested above the root zone, foliage and flower damage was evaluated over time by assessing percent visible foliage damage, ratings of foliage health, percent foliar wilt, flower/bud count, and final foliage and flower fresh and dry weights. Over the evaluation period, the root health rating of the ‘Vivaldi’ hybrid phalaenopsis orchids treated with 12% H2O2 decreased from 5 to 1.13, whereas those treated with 3% H2O2 only decreased from 5 to 4.13. H2O2 concentrations of 6% and 12% damaged root health permanently, whereas the 3% H2O2 concentration only caused minor damage to overall root health. However, algae were not killed at the 3% rate. Neither foliage nor flowers were seriously affected during the 3 weeks after application, but foliage wilt did result in the 6% and 12% treatments by week 4. As H2O2 concentration increased, fresh weights decreased in roots and leaves. Although a single 3% H2O2 root dip did not result in severe symptoms of phytotoxicity, the treatment’s long-term plant health effects are unknown. Because the 3% H2O2 root dip caused minor plant health setbacks and failed to subdue algae populations in the root zone, consumers should be wary of using H2O2 to improve orchid (Orchidaceae) root health and should instead focus on altering care and watering practices.
Most Phalaenopsis (the moth orchid) species and hybrids start to produce flowering shoots in the fall, bloom in January or February, and become limited in supply by April when market demand is strong. Means to defer the onset of flowering were studied. Starting 15 Sept. 1994, seedlings of 2-year-old hybrid Phalaenopsis TAM Butterfly were exposed to repeated cycles of 1 d darkness/1 d light (natural photoperiod, 1D/1L); 4 d darkness/3 d light (4D/3L); 7 d darkness/7 d light (7D/7L); and the natural photoperiod control (0D/7L). The dark treatments were achieved by covering plants with black fabric or by placing them in a dark cage. Treatments were terminated on 16 Dec., and all plants were exposed to the natural photoperiod. The control plants bloomed on 20 Jan. 1995, whereas the 4D/3L plants did not reach anthesis until 14 Apr., nearly 3 months later. Flowering of the 1D/1L and 7D/7L plants was also deferred until early April. Regardless of treatments, flower count and size were unaffected. In another experiment, beginning 15 Sept. 1995, 3-year-old plants were exposed to repeated weekly cycles of 2D/5L, 3D/4L, 4D/3L, or 5D/2L until 22 Jan. 1996. The nontreated control plants bloomed on 8 Feb. 1996, whereas the 5D/2L did not reach anthesis until 6 May. The 4D/3L treatment was not as effective as it was in 1994 and resulted in anthesis only 4 weeks after the control. In the last experiment, starting on 22 Jan. 1996, plants were removed at 2-week intervals from a 5D/2L treatment that was initiated on 15 Sept. 1995 and exposed to the natural photoperiod. Staggered anthesis was achieved. However, plants that bloomed in May and June had reduced flower count but not flower size.