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Heidi Marie Wollaeger and Erik S. Runkle

Light-emitting diodes are well suited for commercial plant production because of their high energy efficiency and spectral specificity ( Mitchell et al., 2012 ). When operated at favorable temperatures, well-constructed LEDs have an operating

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Mark G. Lefsrud, Dean A. Kopsell, and Carl E. Sams

varying wavelengths ( Gauthier et al., 1997 ; Heraut-Bron et al., 2001 ; Quaderi and Reid, 2005 ; Walters and Horton, 1995 ). With the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), specific wavelengths of light can now be applied at higher irradiance

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Qingwu Meng and Erik S. Runkle

-pressure sodium lamps used for day-extension lighting to provide a 16-h long day and INC lamps used for 4-h NI lighting following a 9-h SD were similarly effective at promoting flowering of four petunia species ( Warner, 2010 ). Light-emitting diodes have several

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Gioia Massa, Thomas Graham, Tim Haire, Cedric Flemming II, Gerard Newsham, and Raymond Wheeler

cycle ( Morrow, 2008 ; Yeh and Chung, 2009 ). Light-emitting diodes are easily configured into different form factors and, for example, have been used to provide intracanopy lighting where whole plant canopies can be irradiated from both above and from

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Dean A. Kopsell, Carl E. Sams, T. Casey Barickman, and Robert C. Morrow

( Table 1 ). Table 1. Mean values for shoot tissue fresh and dry mass of sprouting broccoli microgreens grown in controlled environments under broad-spectrum light and different specific narrow-band wavelengths from light-emitting diodes. Impact of light

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Miguel Urrestarazu, Cinthia Nájera, and María del Mar Gea

·m −2 ·s −1 ) and illuminance (lux), respectively. Table 1. Light data with two light-emitting diode (LED) lamps and light intensities [4 (L) and 6 (H), unit m −2 ] and electric energy expenditure (kWh·m −2 ). Two types of 18 W LED lamp tubes were used

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Chase Jones-Baumgardt, David Llewellyn, Qinglu Ying, and Youbin Zheng

of light intensity on stem and leaf growth in broad bean seedlings J. Expt. Bot. 14 142 152 Craver, J.K. Boldt, J.K. Lopez, R.G. 2019 Comparison of supplemental lighting provided by high-pressure sodium lamps or light-emitting diodes for the

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Claudia Elkins and Marc W. van Iersel

polystyrene, and an opaque black curtain was hung between the racks to prevent light pollution between neighboring sections. In each section, two white light-emitting diode (LED) light bars (SPYDRx Plus with PhysioSpec indoor spectrum; Fluence Bioengineering

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Tessa Pocock

Increases in shoot tissue pigments, glucosinolates, and mineral elements in sprouting broccoli after exposure to short-duration blue light from light emitting diodes J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 138 31 37 Lau, O.S. Deng, X.W. 2010 Plant hormones signaling

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Fumiko Kohyama, Catherine Whitman, and Erik S. Runkle

light intensity of all NI treatments was between 1.5 and 1.8 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 . Fig. 1. Spectral output of incandescent (INC) or two light-emitting diode (LED) lamps measured with a portable spectroradiometer; R + W = red and white LEDs; R + W + FR = red