under replicated or controlled conditions. H 2 O 2 is a well-known oxidizing agent often used as a remedy by consumers to treat algae and root decay from presumed root disease on interior plants, as well as to encourage root growth and health
Renata Goossen and Kimberly A. Williams
Caroline H. Pearson-Mims and Virginia I. Lohr
Interiorscaping has been prevalent in office environments in the United States since the 1960s. Historically, proponents of interior plantings have cited numerous benefits, including improved employee morale, increased productivity, and reduced absenteeism when plants are added to the workplace, despite little scientific research to support these claims. Contemporary research is beginning to document some of these purported benefits of interior plantings on human comfort, well-being, and productivity. If researchers continue to provide concrete evidence that interaction with plants is directly linked to improved human health and well-being, this information will provide further justification for the use of interior plants in a variety of indoor work settings. With an ever-increasing emphasis by business managers on minimizing costs, it is important for industry professionals to provide quantifiable justification for the inclusion of plants in modern work environments.
Andrea K. Dravigne, Tina M. Waliczek, Jayne M. Zajicek, and R. Daniel Lineberger
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the presence of live interior plants or window views of exterior green spaces on employee job satisfaction. A survey was administered through an online database. The survey included questions regarding physical work environment, the presence or absence of live interior plants, windows, exterior green spaces, environmental preferences, job satisfaction, and demographical information. About 600 office workers from Texas and the Midwest responded to the on-line workplace environment survey. Data were analyzed to compare levels of job satisfaction of employees that worked in office spaces that included live interior plants or window views of exterior green spaces and employees that worked in office environments without live plants or window views. Demographic information collected allowed controlling for salary, occupational level, educational level, age group, gender, and ethnicity. This research data can be particularly useful in urban planning, commercial property design and to encourage the incorporation of plants and green spaces in interior and exterior development projects.
Jennifer Doxey and Tina M. Waliczek
Many individuals and businesses enhance the central design of their homes or offices with living interior plants. While the aesthetic values of interior greenery are obvious, some research has suggested that interior living plants may offer some psychological and restorative values, such as reduced tension, better coping mechanisms, and increased concentration and attention. The main objective of this research was to investigate the impact of plants within a university classroom setting on course performance, course satisfaction, and student perceptions of the instructor. The study was designed to include a minimum of two classes of the same coursework, taught by the same professor in the same room. Three sets of two classes each, and ≈500 students were included within the study. Throughout the semester, the experimental class of students was treated by including an assortment of tropical plants within the classroom. Plants were not present in the control classroom of the study. A survey administered to each classroom of students at the end of the semester asked students to provide demographic data including class rank, gender, and grade point average. The professor for each course provided information on each student's grade for the course, as well as overall quantitative information on how well students were satisfied with the experience they had within the course. The results demonstrate value added to the classroom experience and help to justify consideration of the added expense of interior plants in meeting the goals of instructor and curriculum.
Jianjun Chen, Russell D. Caldwell, and Cynthia A. Robinson
Gynura aurantiaca is a colorful foliage plant with creeping stems and velvety purple hairs that cover the green leaves. It grows rapidly, but is cultivated primarily for those attractive purple leaves. Annually during the spring, this plant produces prominent flowers both in appearance and smell, gaudy and malodorous. Flowering coupled with acquiring an over-grown leggy appearance have been key limitations in its production and use in interiorscaping. This study was undertaken to determine if an available commercial plant growth regulator could inhibit flowering. A-Rest (ancymidol), B-Nine (daminozide), Bonzi (paclobutrazol), cycocel (chlormequat chloride) and florel (ethephon) each diluted to three different concentrations were sprayed in two applications in early spring at 2-week intervals. Flowering and bud numbers and plant growth (number of lateral shoots, vine lengths and internode lengths) were recorded. Results indicated that applications of A-Rest, B-Nine, Bonzi and Cycocel, regardless of treatment concentrations, were ineffective in suppressing the flowering of this plant; whereas, florel completely suppressed flowering at the three concentrations used. The florel-treated plants also grew more lateral shoots, which produced a compact and dense bush-look, indicating that appropriate concentrations of florel application not only will stop flowering of purple passion but can also improve and prolong its aesthetic value as a potted or hanging-basket interior plant.
Daniel F. Warnock and Heather Lash
The development of the Renaissance series of cut poinsettias, Euphorbia pulcherrima, presents unique opportunities and challenges to cut flower producers. This series has curled bracts, long stem length, excellent vase life, and is highly marketable. Literature indicates that this crop is suited for pot or bed production, but does not compare how cultural methods impact stem quality. This study assessed the impact of pinching on final stem quality and crop profitability. Uniform rooted cuttings of `Renaissance Red' obtained from a commercial supplier were transplanted into a 1.2 × 2.4 m bed containing a soilless media to obtain two plants per 0.09 m2. A total of 56 cuttings were used and grown using standard production techniques. Transplanting occurred on 29 July 2004 with half of the plants being pinched on 19 Aug. 2004. To minimize border effects, plants in the outside rows were discarded. Upon harvest, stem length, stem diameter, bract diameter, floral development, and number of axillary shoots were determined for 30 interior plants. Both pinched and unpinched plants produced marketable stems; however, unpinched plants produced longer thicker stems with larger bracts. The number of stems obtained per square foot was greater with the pinched plants. While overall quality was reduced, this increase in stem number offset potential lost profit. The production of quality cut stems of `Renaissance Red' poinsettias is possible with either pinched or unpinched plants.
Daniel Warnock*, Megan Fifarek, and Heather Lash
The development of the Renaissance series of cut poinsettias, Euphorbia pulcherrima, presents unique opportunities and challenges to cut flower producers. This series has curled bracts, long stem length, excellent vase life and is highly marketable. Literature indicates that this crop is suited for pot or bed production, but does not compare methods. This study assessed the impact of production system on final stem quality. Uniform rooted cuttings of `Renaissance Red' obtained from a commercial supplier were transplanted into 30.5-cm pots or a 1.2-× 2.4-m bed containing a soilless media to obtain 2 plants per 0.9 m2. A total of 56 cuttings were used for each production system and grown using standard production techniques. Transplanting occurred on 11 Aug. 11 2003 with plants reaching market stage, two cyathia shedding pollen, about 17 weeks later. To minimize border effects, plants in the outside rows of each production system were discarded. Thus, stem length, stem diameter, bract diameter, floral development, and number of axillary shoots were determined for 30 interior plants in each system. The production systems differentially impacted stem length and number of axillary shoots. Mean stem length in the bed system (89.7 cm) was greater than that observed in the pot system (71.4 cm). Plants in the bed system had significantly fewer axillary branches per plant (0.5) than plants in the pots (2.0). Stem diameters were similar for both systems (11.5 mm and 10.9 mm for bench and pot, respectively) as were bract diameters (14.3 cm and 13.4 cm for pot and bench, respectively). Both systems produced marketable stems; however, stems produced in the bed system had longer stems, fewer axillary branches, and were more uniform than those in the pot system.
Rebecca A. Schnelle and James E. Barrett
The influence of several environmental and cultural factors on the efficacy of paclobutrazol liner dips were evaluated for three species of bedding plants: ‘Fancy’ scaevola (Scaevola aemula), ‘Suncatcher Plum’ petunia (Petunia ×hybrida), and ‘Double Fiesta Rose’ impatiens (Impatiens walleriana). The impact of paclobutrazol concentration in the dip solution, location of treatment, root substrate moisture status, and time in the dip solution were investigated. Before the liner dip application, the rooting substrate was brought to a specific percentage of container water capacity (20%–100%). Liners were then dipped in a paclobutrazol solution of the prescribed concentration (1–16 mg·L−1) for a prescribed time interval (10–300 s) in a specific location (open-wall greenhouse, polyethylene-glazed greenhouse under 80% shade fabric, three-wall potting shed, or building interior). Plant size data were collected when the untreated control plants reached a marketable stage. Paclobutrazol concentration and root substrate moisture status had a significant effect on size control, but location and dip duration did not. Size suppression varied by species. Following a liner dip at 2 mg·L−1, scaevola, impatiens, and petunia plants were 44%, 26%, and 11% smaller than the untreated controls, respectively. Petunia plants dipped in a 8 mg·L−1 paclobutrazol solution with substrate moisture status of 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 50%, or 20% of container capacity were 11%, 8%, 25%, 30%, 41%, or 42% smaller than the untreated control, respectively (30 s dip duration, open-wall greenhouse). Petunia plants dipped in a solution of 8 mg·L−1 paclobutrazol for 10, 30, 120, or 300 s were all between 18% and 23% smaller than the control (50% of container capacity, open-wall greenhouse). Petunia plants dipped in an 8 mg·L−1 paclobutrazol solution in all four locations were all 20% to 21% smaller than the untreated control.
Seong-Hyun Park and Richard H. Mattson
. Human Factors Soc Norfolk, VA 738 741 Littell, R.C. Milliken, G.A. Stroup, W.W. Wolfinger, R.D. 2006 SAS for mixed models SAS Institute Cary, NC Lohr, V.I. 1992 The contribution of interior plants to relative humidity in an office 117 119 Relf P.D. The
Hyojin Kim, Ho-Hyun Kim, Jae-Young Lee, Yong-Won Lee, Dong-Chun Shin, Kwang-Jin Kim, and Young-Wook Lim
.I. Pearson-Mims, C.H. 2000 Physical discomfort may be reduced in the presence of interior plants HortTechnology 10 53 58 Lohr, V.I. Pearson-Mims, C.H. Goodwin, G.K. 1996 Interior plants may improve worker productivity and reduce stress in a windowless