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Carol M. Foster, William R. Graves, and Harry T. Horner

Knowing whether leguminous trees have the potential to nodulate after infection by rhizobial bacteria is important for managing nitrogen (N) applications during tree production and for culture in the landscape. Although 98% of studied species in the Papilionoideae nodulate, the nodulation status of two tree species in this subfamily is uncertain. Cladrastis kentukea (Dum.-Cours.) Rudd (American yellowwood) did not form nodules during inoculation studies in 1939 and 1992. Nodules were observed on mature Sophora japonica L. (Japanese pagodatree) in Japan and Hawaii in the 1940s, but compatible rhizobia reportedly isolated in Japan are no longer held in bacterial collections. Our objective was to verify further that American yellowwood does not nodulate and to confirm reports that Japanese pagodatree does nodulate. Rhizobia that infect many plant hosts, soil samples and rhizobial isolates from other Sophora spp., and soil samples from mature American yellowwood and Japanese pagodatree were used to inoculate 5-day-old seedlings of American yellowwood, Japanese pagodatree, and control species. Soil from indigenous and introduced trees in the continental United States, Hawaii, Japan, and China was used. Inoculated and uninoculated plants were grown for 7 weeks in sterile Leonard jars or clay pots containing perlite and irrigated with sterile, N-free Hoagland's solution. No inoculation treatment elicited nodulation of American yellowwood or Japanese pagodatree. Our results provide additional evidence that American yellowwood lacks that capacity to nodulate and cast further doubt on nodulation of Japanese pagodatree.

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Sophie Rochefort, Yves Desjardins, David J. Shetlar, and Jacques Brodeur

therefore based on percentage viable infection in the seeds. Neotyphodium -infected plants may benefit from enhanced growth and vigor ( Latch and Christensen, 1985 ), increased tolerance to climatic factors such as drought and high temperatures ( Bacon

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S. Soria, C. Taboada, R. Rojas, T. Evans, V. D. Damsteegt, and S. Kitto

Mashua, closely related to the garden nasturtium, has been cultivated by people of the Andean highlands since Incan time; however, it is disappearing from Ecuadorean markets due to decreasing yields. The main objectives of this research were to compare 1) in vitro proliferation and rooting, and reestablishment, and 2) field plant qualities such as vigor and yield between virus-infected and virus-free plant material. Virus-free material was obtained from shoot apices about 0.2 mm in size isolated from virus-infected, in vitro maintained, microcuttings of a number of mashua lines. Mashua line had an effect on proliferation, reestablishment and tuber yield. Virus infection appeared to have a detrimental effect on the general in vitro performance of all lines. There were no differences in reestablishment between the virus-infected and virus-free plants. Although there were no overall yield differences between the virus-infected and virus-free lines, virus-infected lines produced significantly more large tubers.

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Jose P. Morales-Payan, Gonzalo Morales-Salazar, and Bielinski M. Santos

Field and container experiments were conducted in the Dominican Republic to determine the effect of gibberellic acid 3 (GA3) rates on papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)-infected seedlings and adult plants of `Cartagena Ombligua' papaya. The apical region of PRSV-infected and PRSV-uninfected plants was sprayed with GA3 aqueous solutions at rates 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm. PRSV-uninfected adult plants and seedlings produced longer internodes as GA3 rates increased. Adult PRSV-uninfected plants flowered normally at any GA3 rate. PRSV-infected seedlings and adult plants also responded to GA3 sprays, but to a lower extent. Typical symptoms of the disease were present in all the infected plants regardless of the GA3 rate applied, and adult plants did not flower at any rate. Results indicate that PRSV-infected `Cartagena Ombligua' papaya plants are responsive to exogenous GA3, although in a lesser degree than PRSV-uninfected plants. Linear regression equations described the effect of GA3 on the stem elongation of PRSV-infected and uninfected `Cartagena Ombligua' seedlings and adult plants.

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Assunta Bertaccini, Robert E. Davis, and Ing Ming Lee

A collection of mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs) was maintained in plant tissues micropropagated in vitro. MLO-infected plants included Chrysanthemum frutescens L. with chyrsanthemum yellows disease, Gladiolus sp. L. with “germ fins,” Hydrangea macrophilla (Thunb.) DC. with virescence, Rubus fruticosus L. with rubus stunt, and periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don] singly infected by the following MLOs: Italian periwinkle virescence, chrysanthemum yellows, North American aster yellows, Italian periwinkle stunt, American periwinkle little leaf. Shoots micropropagated in vitro exhibited symptoms of little-leaf and/or abnormal proliferation of axillary shoots resulting in “witches' broom” appearance that resembled symptoms in grafttransmitted greenhouse-grown or naturally infected field-collected plants. These symptoms, typical of infection by MLOs, were not observed in micropropagated healthy shoots of the same plant species, and, compared with the healthy ones, varied with MLO strain and host plant species. Dot hybridizations with a nonradioactive cloned DNA probe provided evidence for the presence of MLOs in propagated tissues through serial subcultures.

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Frank A. Buffone, Don R. La Bonte, and Christopher A. Clark

DNA isolated from Fusarium lateritium Nees: Fr.-infected `Jewel' sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] plants was compared to F. lateritium-free `Jewel' plants for differences in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker products. Differences in RAPD marker products were detected. Amplified DNA isolations from F. lateritium-infected `Jewel' plants generated additional, unique DNA fragments not found in amplified DNA isolations of F. lateritium-free `Jewel' plants. These unique amplified DNA fragments were consistent with those obtained from amplified DNA isolations of the F. lateritium isolate, 91-27-2, used for inoculation. We found that F. lateritium DNA successfully competes with sweetpotato DNA in the polymerase chain reaction for priming sites in a 3: 1 ratio of sweetpotato DNA to F. lateritium DNA. Our results indicate the importance of avoiding plant material infested with pathogens to avoid spurious marker bands.

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Douglas Miano, Don LaBonte, and Christopher Clark

Sweetpotato is an important staple food crop in Sub-Saharan Africa, with production being concentrated in East Africa, particularly around Lake Victoria. Productivity of the crop is greatly constrained by viral diseases. Four main viruses have consistently been detected from various surveys done in the region viz., sweetpotato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweetpotato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), sweetpotato mild mottle virus (Sp.m.MV), and sweetpotato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV). The most severe symptoms have been caused by co-infection with SPCSV and SPFMV, resulting in the synergistic sweetpotato virus disease (SPVD). Some local sweetpotato genotypes have been reported to recover from, or have localized distribution of SPVD, suggesting that the disease is not fully systemic. This has led to the suggestion that uninfected cuttings may be obtained from previously infected plants. Experiments were set to determine the possibility of obtaining cuttings long enough for propagation that are free from virus infection. This would form a basis for recommending to the local small-holder farmers of a way to reduce losses due to the disease. Field-grown sweetpotato vines were cut into three pieces (15, 15–30, and >30 cm from the apex) and tested for SPCSV and SPFMV. Nine genotypes were selected from a group of 21 local clones and used for this study. The two viruses were equally present in all the three sections of infected vines, indicating that it is not easy to obtain a virus-free cutting for field propagation from an infected vine. Virus assays in the past has mainly been limited to the use of serological methods. Use of PCR resulted in detection of begomoviruses infecting sweetpotatoes for the first time in the region.

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R. Garcia, M. Muy, E. Araiza, M. Báez, J. Siller, and J. Diaz

Classic-type eggplant fruits collected at the packing line were stored at 21C to evaluate respiration, weight loss, and quality characteristics. Fruits were divided on two groups. One group was inoculated with Phytophthora capsici. Fruit size, postharvest changes in color, compositional characteristics, CO2 production, weight loss, and spread area of the disease were monitored daily. Fruit size at harvest ranged between 15 to 17 cm of longitude and 7 to 9 cm of diameter. Seventy two hours after inoculation (HAI) of the fruits with P. capsici, a significant increase on respiration was detected even before the fungus was visually present. After 144 HAI, respiration on infected fruits reached 49 ml CO2/kg per h, while healthy fruits achieved only 15.7 ml CO2/kg per h, reducing quality and shelf-life on rotten fruits. Firmness, titratable acidity, and pH showed a significant difference between healthy and infected fruits. pH on infected fruits change from 4.96 after 96 HAI to 6.91 after 144 HAI, while healthy fruits did not change in the same period. Results were closely related with time after inoculation. Forty-eight HAI, the surface affected was of 2.7 cm by 1.8 cm; while 168 HAI, the affected surface area increased to 12.2 cm by 13.4 cm, representing damage above 60% of the total surface of the fruit.

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Thomas A. Bewick, Larry K. Binning, and Nelson E. Balke

Absorption of “C-labeled glyphosate by whole carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants infected or not infected by swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii Willd ex R & S) increased from 14% 1 day after treatment to 56% 14 days after treatment. Absorption of 14C-labeled glyphosate did not increase from 14 to 45 days after treatment. 14Carbon-labeled glyphosate appeared in the carrot root 1 day after application and its concentration increased with time in both infected and noninfected plants until 14 days after treatment. From 14 to 45 days after treatment, the concentration of 14C-labeled glyphosate in the roots decreased. At 1 day after treatment, dodder tissue contained as much 14C-labeled glyphosate as any physiological sink in the carrot. At 45 days after treatment, dodder tissue contained more 14C-labeled glyphosate than all other physiological sinks, except the petiole of the treated leaf. Swamp dodder stems had absorbed 14C-labeled glyphosate directly from a solution within 1 day after treatment. Chemical name used: N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosphate).

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Mary Jean Welser and Martin C. Goffinet

Grapevine yellows is a destructive, worldwide disease of grapevines that is caused by a phytoplasma, a bacterium-like organism that infects and disrupts the vascular system of shoots. The North American form of grapevine yellows (NAGY) has been observed in New York State since the mid-1970s and in Virginia since the mid-1990s. Symptoms duplicate those of vines suffering from an Australian disease complex known as Australian grapevine yellows (AGY). We sought to determine if infected `Chardonnay' vines have common anatomical characteristics across the three regions. At each geographic site in late summer, 2003–04, leaf and internode samples were taken from younger green regions of shoots and from mature basal regions in the fruiting zone. These were processed for histology. The anatomy of each organ type was compared between locations on the shoot, between geographic locations, and between affected and normal shoots. The phloem was the only tissue universally affected in vines with NAGY or AGY symptoms. In stem internodes, both primary phloem and secondary phloem showed many senescent cells, abnormally proliferated giant cells, and hyperplasia. In affected secondary phloem there was disruption of the radial files of cells that normally differentiate from the cambium into mature phloem cell types. Normal bands of secondary phloem fibers (“hard phloem”) in internodes were weak or absent in affected vines. Leaves also had disrupted phloem organization but near-normal xylem organization in vines with symptoms. Leaves of infected vines frequently showed a disruption of sugar transport out of the leaf blades, manifested by a heavy buildup of starch in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells and bundle-sheath cells.