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Rajendra P. Maurya, Dion M. Lewis, and Jeff St. A. Chandler

lowest survival of litchi air-layering in control. The findings of Borah and Das (2000) are also in close conformity. Table 1. Effect of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) concentrations on rooting percentage, number of roots, and fresh and dry weight of roots

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Efstathia Exadaktylou, Thomas Thomidis, Brian Grout, George Zakynthinos, and Constantinos Tsipouridis

et al., 2004 ), but no data are available for the propagation of this rootstock by hardwood cuttings. Many external factors such as cutting length and diameter, applied indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) concentration, date of cutting collection, and

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Julia A. Cartabiano and Jessica D. Lubell

treated with talc-based indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at 0, 1000, 3000, or 8000 ppm. More of the cuttings of C. cornuta and V. acerifolium transplanted at 39 weeks, after a cold period, survived than did cuttings transplanted at 8 weeks after sticking

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Xiaoling Jin, Xijun Hu, Youping Sun, Donglin Zhang, and Ping He

, scale bar =1 cm; ( G ) plants acclimatized in a shady area (≈60% shade); ( H ) plants established in the field (≈2 years). WPM = woody plant medium; BA = 6-Benzylaminopurine; NAA = α-naphthaleneacetic acid; IBA = indole-3-butyric acid. The creamy white

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Todd J. Rounsaville, Darren H. Touchell, Thomas G. Ranney, and Frank A. Blazich

.59 + 0.064 (IBA), r 2 = 0.25, P < 0.05. Vertical lines = ± 1 se . IBA = indole-3-butyric acid. Regression analysis performed on ex vitro rooting data revealed no significant linear or quadratic trends. The highest concentration of K-IBA (41.4 μM

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Takashi Hosoki and Daisuke Kimura

Micropropagation of Centaurea macrocephala Pushk. ex Willd. was achieved by subculturing of vertically split shoots and division of axillary buds on MS-based medium with 0.44 μm BA. A proliferation rate of 2.0 per 16-day culture period was obtained. Seventy percent of microcuttings obtained through in vitro culture could be rooted on a modified Hyponex medium with 25 μM IBA. All plantlets were readily acclimatized and grown in a greenhouse. Chemical names used: benzylaminopurine (BA); indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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M.R. Pooler and R. Scorza

Shoots were regenerated from cotyledons of mature stored seed of three peach rootstock cultivars (`Flordaguard', `Nemared', and `Medaguard'). Shoot regeneration rates were highest when cotyledons were cultured for 3 weeks in darkness on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2.5% sucrose and a combination of IBA (1.25 or 2.5 μm) and TDZ (6.25 or 12.5 μm). Regeneration rates for `Flordaguard', `Nemared', and `Nemaguard' were as high as 60%, 33%, and 6%, respectively. Length of seed storage (1 to 3 years) did not affect regeneration rates. Seventy percent of regenerated shoots produced rooted plants. This regeneration method is rapid and simple, and stored seed can be used year-round. It may be a useful regeneration system for gene transfer in seed-propagated peach rootstocks. Chemical names used: 5 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); thidiazuron (TDZ).

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Mohammed M. Al-Salem and Nabila S. Karam

Stem cuttings of Arbutus andrachne L. were taken from basal or terminal portions of branches in October and treated with acid or salt forms of IBA or NAA at several concentrations. Also, the effects of wounding and propagation medium were assessed. Auxin was necessary for root formation, IBA acid being most effective. In general, salt forms of IBA and NAA were less effective than acid forms. Concentration of auxin had a significant effect on rooting regardless of auxin type or chemical form. The greatest rooting percentage, root number, length, and fresh and dry weights were exhibited by basal cuttings treated with 24 mm IBA. Position of the cutting on the branch did not affect rooting except when the IBA acid form was used; basal cuttings were then superior to terminal ones. Wounding, by making two opposite longitudinal incisions at the base of the cutting, increased rooting. The propagation medium had a significant effect on adventitious root formation, which was enhanced with increasing perlite percentage in the medium up to 100%. Chemical names used:1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

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Norman E. Looney


A single spray of 2.5 or 5% CaCl2 applied 14 days before harvest significantly reduced breakdown of ‘Spartan’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) in each of 4 consecutive years and caused no residual tree or crop damage. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) alone or in combination with CaCl2 led to significant reductions in breakdown in only 1 of the 3 seasons in which it was tested. Ca applied in 1 season did not influence fruit Ca levels the next year. Both 2.5 and 5% CaCl2 applied in 1973 significantly increased Ca in fruit peel, flesh and core tissues. Although IBA did not increase fruit Ca levels, a strong negative relationship between fruit Ca and breakdown susceptibility was evidenced by analyses in 3 crop years.

Fruits located near the top of the trees were lower in flesh Ca than those from the bottom. This, plus inadequate spray coverage in the top of the tree canopies, led to poor control of breakdown in these fruits when the sprays were applied at lx, 3x or 6x concentration with an air-blast orchard sprayer using 3342, 1114, and 557 1 of water per hectare, respectively.

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Christopher L. Rosier, John Frampton, Barry Goldfarb, Frank A. Blazich, and Farrell C. Wise

Seven concentrations of IBA and seven concentrations of NAA plus a nonauxin control were tested over three growth stages to determine their effectiveness in promoting adventitious root formation on stem cuttings taken from 3- and 4-year-old stock plants of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.]. Cuttings were prepared in March (hardwood), June (softwood), or November (semi-hardwood) 2001, treated with auxin concentrations ranging from 0 to 64 mm, and placed under mist. Rooting percentage, percent mortality, number of primary roots, total root length, root system symmetry, and root angle were recorded after 16 weeks. Growth stage and auxin concentration significantly affected every rooting trait except root angle. NAA significantly increased the number of primary roots and total root length. However, auxin type did not significantly affect rooting percentage or percent mortality. The highest rooting percentages (99%) occurred when softwood cuttings were treated with 5 mm auxin, however, semi-hardwood cuttings also rooted at high percentages (90%) and had no mortality when treated with 14 mm auxin. Regardless of auxin type, the number of primary roots and total root length varied in similar patterns across concentration, although, NAA tended to induce a greater response. To root Fraser fir stem cuttings collected from 3- and 4-year-old stock plants, it is recommended that a concentration of 5 mm NAA should be used on softwood cuttings and 14 mm IBA on semi-hardwood cuttings. Chemical names used: indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).