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Brian E. Whipker, Ingram McCall, James L. Gibson, and Todd J. Cavins

Flurprimidol substrate drenches at 2 mg a.i. per 15.3 cm (6 inch) pot were more effective on `Pacino' pot sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) than flurprimidol foliar sprays of ≥30 mg.L –1 (ppm), but both treatments resulted in significantly smaller plant height and diameter than the control (28,350 mg = 1 oz). Flurprimidol drenches of 2 mg were comparable in controlling plant height and diameter to the commercial drench recommendations of 2 mg paclobutrazol. The commercial recommendation of daminozide foliar sprays at 4000 mg.L –1 had greater efficacy in controlling plant height than the most effective flurprimidol foliar sprays of ≥30 mg.L –1. Daminozide had no effect on plant diameter, while flurprimidol resulted in narrower plants. Flurprimidol and paclobutrazol drenches of 2 mg offer the economic advantage to producers of increased plant density on greenhouse benches, while plants treated with daminozide would require a greater amount of bench area. Producers should evaluate the trade-offs between the added costs of a drench vs. the higher cost-per-square-foot-week of production space required for a daminozide foliar spray. With these options, producers can select a plant growth regulator (PGR) that best fits their production and market requirements.

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David Wm. Reed and Arthur E. Nightingale

Abstract

At recommended rates, butanedioic acid mono-(2,2-dimethyIhydrazide) (daminozide) was the most effective in limiting height increase, α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5 oyrimidine (ancymidol) was slightly less effective, and (2-chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat) had no effect compared to the controls when applied as foliar sprays to Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat. cv. Early Golden Hill. There was no significant effect of spray solution pH on controlling height by any of the growth retardants.

Open access

A. L. Kamal and M. Marroush

Abstract

Incidence of chocolate spot, known also as internal brown spot, in tubers of the ‘Arran Banner’ cultivar can reach as high as 60% (Fig. 1). This cultivar is widely grown in the Beqa'a plain of Lebanon for its high yield and good storage life. Other cultivars grown elsewhere in potato producing areas of the world are also seriously damaged by this physiological disease. Control in ‘Arran Banner’ in Lebanon was obtained by foliar sprays with 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon) using rates ranging from 200-600 ppm (Table 1).

Open access

L. J. Edgerton, N. Veinbrants, and J. F. Hutchinson

Abstract

Single and multiple foliar sprays of a commercial formulation containing silicon dioxide, when applied on ‘Golden Delicious’ starting at the petal fall stage, significantly reduced fruit russeting. In 4 trials the 2-spray treatment (petal fall and petal fall + 8 to 10 days) gave better control than a single application at petal fall. In a single trial a third application 21 days after petal fall gave no further reduction in russet. The treatments did not significantly alter fruit size, shape, seed number or maturity date.

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Brian E. Whipker and Ingram McCall

Plant growth retardant (PGR) foliar sprays of daminozide at 4,000 or 8,000 mg·L-1 (ppm) and paclobutrazol drenches of 2 or 4 mg a.i. per pot were applied to `Big Smile', `Pacino', `Sundance Kid', `Sunspot', and `Teddy Bear' pot sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) to compare their chemical height control. Plant height varied among the cultivars due to genetic variation. The percentage reduction in plant height from the untreated control only was significant at the PGR level, indicating similar responses of all five cultivars to each PGR rate. Paclobutrazol drenches at 2 mg and daminozide foliar sprays at 4,000 or 8,000 mg·L-1 reduced plant height by about 24% when compared to the control. Paclobutrazol drenches at 4 mg produced plants that were 33% shorter than the control. Plant diameter of `Big Smile', `Pacino', or `Sundance Kid' was unaffected by daminozide, whereas `Sunspot' plants were smaller than the controls. Paclobutrazol drenches at 2 or 4 mg decreased plant diameter for all cultivars except `Teddy Bear', with the reduction being greater as paclobutrazol drench rates increased. The number of inflorescence buds increased by ≥18% with the use of daminozide sprays, while paclobutrazol drenches at 2 or 4 mg had no effect when compared to the untreated control. Paclobutrazol drenches of 2 or 4 mg offer the economic advantage to growers of increased plant density on greenhouse benches, while plants treated with daminozide had an increased bud count but would require a greater amount of bench space.

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A. Hagiladi and A.A. Watad

Potted Cordyline terminalis L. `Prins Albert', a foliage plant, was treated with foliar sprays or growth medium drenches of paclobutrazol for plant growth control. Paclobutrazol effectively reduced shoot length measured 4 months following application, the drench being more effective than the spray. Application of paclobutrazol at 200 ppm by either method gave a desirable compact and marketable product. Drench applications at 1000 ppm promoted side-shoot formation. Leaf morphology was altered from an elongated to a more oval form as the paclobutrazol concentration increased, but leaf count was not affected by paclobutrazol, except for the highest drench concentration, which reduced leaf count by 10%. Chemical name used: β– [(4-chlorophenyl)methyl] –α– (1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).

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H.C. Wien and Y. Zhang

Catfacing of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit describes the enlarged blossom-end scar and ridged, flattened or irregular fruit shape often found on plants subjected to low temperature during ovary development. Experiments were conducted to determine if GA3 foliar sprays could be used as a screening tool for catfacing. Concentrations of 5 to 50 μM of GA3, applied once at transplanting, significantly increased catfacing incidence on the susceptible `Revolution', whereas the resistant `Valerie' was less affected. Two applications 8 days apart extended symptoms to later clusters formed on branches and may be useful for screening cultivars of a wide range of earliness. Plant apex removal may also be possible as a fruit catfacing screening tool. Chemical name used: gibberellic acid (GA3).

Open access

Darrell Sparks

Abstract

Response from foliar-applied P (0.0%, 0.50%, 0.75%, or 1.00% P from KH2PO4) was compared to that from root-supplied P (Hoagland's solution) in pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] seedlings. Compared with no applied P, foliar-applied P suppressed or prevented P deficiency symptoms; increased the P concentration in the leaf, trunk, and root; and increased tree growth. However, P in all 3 organs and growth of plants treated with foliar sprays were less than for plants with root-supplied P. Furthermore, P sprays eventually produced leaf scorch. Compared to root-supplied P, omitting P affected N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, B, Cu, Zn, Na, and Al in the plant. These imbalances induced by P deficiency were only partially alleviated by foliar-applied P.

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A.P. Papadopoulos, U. Saha, X. Hao, and S. Khosla

Encouraging results from previous trials on field vegetables led to the expectation that a kinetin foliar spray from the commercial product KIN-Gro (5000 ppm kinetin) on greenhouse vegetables would positively affect their growth and productivity. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of this product on rockwool-grown `Bodega' cucumber (Cucumis sativus), `Rapsodie' tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum), and `4-Ever' and `444' pepper (Capsicum annuum) at the Greenhouse and Processing Crops Research Centre of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Harrow, Ont. Two replicated experiments were conducted to study the effect of kinetin spray on growth and production of all three crops: the first in Spring-Summer 2004 and the second in Fall-Winter 2004. Foliar sprays of kinetin at 2.5, 5, and 10 ppm concentrations were tested against a water spray (control) on each crop. A 2.5-ppm kinetin spray had beneficial effects on the growth of cucumber transplants (taller plants and greater leaf area and fresh weight of leaves and stems). Furthermore, this treatment resulted in higher marketable yield in the Spring-Summer crop and in larger fruit size in the Fall-Winter crop. Regression analysis showed that cucumber marketable yield had an overall quadratic response to kinetin spray concentration in Spring-Summer season maximizing at 5.1 ppm kinetin. Kinetin spray also had beneficial effects on the growth of tomato seedlings, but not on yield. On the other hand, significant beneficial effects were observed on the growth of pepper seedlings and on marketable yield and fruit quality. Regression analysis showed that the response of pepper marketable yield to kinetin spray concentration was positive and linear. It must be noted that, given the rather short-term nature of our experiments, the observed beneficial effects of the kinetin sprays on yield can only be interpreted as beneficial effects on early yield rather than on the total yield. We concluded that under our growing conditions, cucumber production would benefit from a dilute (2.5 ppm) kinetin spray, and pepper production from a high concentration spray (10 ppm); tomato transplant growth will also benefit from a kinetin spray at 2.5 ppm. The results of this study could be of considerable significance to the greenhouse vegetable industry.

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Franz J. A. Niederholzer and R. Scott Johnson

Urea foliar sprays may be a more efficient and environmentally sound alternative to soil applied fertilizer N in the postharvest period in tree crop production in California. While tree crop sulfur (S) status can interact with tree N status to affect growth, we know of no study assessing tree crop leaf N and S dynamics following fall (postharvest) foliar urea applications. We conducted a field study to measure temporal dynamics of leaf N and leaf S (% dry weight basis) following postharvest urea sprays on prune (Prunusdomestica) and almond (Prunus dulcis). June-budded nursery stock prune (`French' on Myro 29C) and almond (`Price' on Lovell) trees were sprayed to dripping with 6.5% (w/w) and 10% (w/w) standard urea solutions, respectively. Prunes were sprayed on 1 Oct. 2003 and almonds on 18 Nov. 2003. Leaf samples were taken over a 3-week (almond) or 8-week (prune) period, beginning just before treatment. Foliar urea sprays significantly increased prune (23%) and almond (14%) leaf N compared to untreated control within 8 days of application. This affect was transient, as there were no differences in leaf N concentrations between treated and untreated trees at final leaf sampling. Urea sprays did not affect almond leaf S concentration relative to untreated trees. Prune leaf S was significantly reduced compared to untreated trees 8 days after treatment, but only on that sampling date. Remobilization of S from the leaves of control trees of either species was not apparent.