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Víctor Cros, Juan José Martínez-Sánchez, and José Antonio Franco

source of bioprotective nutrients: fatty acid ω3, antioxidants, vitamins, and essential amino acids ( Miller et al., 1984 ; Simopoulos and Salem, 1986 ; Simopoulos et al., 1992 ), glutathione, and alpha-tocopherol ( Liu et al., 2000 ; Palaniswamy et al

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Qiuyue Ma, Shushun Li, Jing Wen, Lu Zhu, Kunyuan Yan, Qianzhong Li, Shuxian Li, and Bin Zhang

et al., 2020 ; Wang et al., 2019 ). Recently, an RNA-seq analysis has been used to examine the regulatory mechanisms associated with seed development, fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis, and UFA accumulation in some woody oilseed crops, such as tree peony

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Tommy E. Thompson, Samuel D. Senter, and L.J. Grauke

Pollen from five cultivars of pecans [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] was analyzed for cytoplasmic lipid classes and constituent fatty acids. Lipid classes in all cultivars included free fatty acids, triglycerides, and the phosphatide of inositol, serine, choline, glycerol, and ethanolamine. Triglycerides were the predominant class of lipids in all cultivars analyzed. Gas chromatography and mass spectral analysis were used to identify and quantify the fatty acids, which included palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic. Quantities of individual and total fatty acids varied greatly and were influenced significantly by cultivar, year, and location, as well as by interactions of main effects The percent composition of individual fatty acids was remarkably stable, despite wide variation in quantities of fatty acids. Therefore, pollen fatty acid ratios may be a valuable measure of taxonomic relationship across Carya sp. Total fatty acids varied from 2.53% to 0.25% of dry weight. Variability in stored energy in the form of lipids may affect orchard production.

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J.O. Kuti

Seeds and cladodes (stems) of cultivated Opuntia species were analyzed for fatty acids using gas chromatography. The major fatty acids found in the cladode tissues were myristic (14:0), palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), arachidic (20:0), and behenic (22:0). The seeds contained predominantly palmitic, stearic, and behenic acids. Significant differences, both in content and composition of fatty acids, exist among the species so that fatty acid profiles may be useful as taxonomic markers for the differentiation of cultivated Opuntia species.

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Yan Li, Hongyan Qi, Yazhong Jin, Xiaobin Tian, Linlin Sui, and Yan Qiu

highly divergent alcohol dehydrogenases of melon exhibit fruit ripening-specific expression and distinct biochemical characteristics Plant Mol. Biol. 61 675 685 Nie, L.C. Sun, J.S. Di, B. 2005 Changes in amino acid and fatty acid contents as well as

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

Information about oil and fatty acids in tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) seed, a promising alternative crop for the mid-Atlantic region of U.S., is largely unknown. Such information is needed to assess the food and feed potentials of tepary bean seed. We determined the concentrations of oil and fatty acids in seed produced by eight tepary bean genotypes planted at three different dates each during 1997 and 1998 at Ettrick, Va. Tepary bean seeds contained 1.8% oil as compared to literature values of 1.3%, 1.1%, and 1.1% for navy, kidney, and pinto beans, respectively. Tepary bean seed oil contained 33% saturated, 67% unsaturated, 24% monounsaturated, and 42% polyunsaturated fatty acids. Planting dates and genotypes did not affect oil concentration. Neb-T-14 was identified to be a desirable genotype based on a low concentration of saturated and a high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Based on concentrations of oil and fatty acids, tepary bean seeds compared well with those of navy, kidney, and pinto beans.

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Sami Bahri, William Aldred, Robert Brown, Laurence Sistrunk, J. Benton Storey, and Tommy Thompson

Previous work in this lab has shown that drying temperatures above 35°C will cause excessive loss of the kernel's natural light color and less oleic (18:1) oxidation to linoleic (18:2) fatty acid. The former is undesirable because of poor consumer appeal and the latter is desirable because of superiority of oleic acid in reducing low density lipoprotein in the blood plasma of consumers and a longer shelf life. The drying temperature of 35°C and an air volume of 45 CFM was superior in 1989 to 75 CFM at the same temperature and an air dried control. Lower air volumes in 1990 proved to be no better than 45 CFM at 35°C The best compromise drying regime was determined to be 45 CFM at 35°C.

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Charles F. Forney

Polar lipids were extracted from immature through overripe `Honey Dew' muskmelons (Cucumis melo L.) that were exposed to high or low levels of solar radiation. Fatty acid composition of the polar lipids changed and the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids increased as fruit ripened. The percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids palmitoleic and oleic acid as a percent of total fatty acids increased from 8% in melons of minimum maturity to >50% in overripe melons. Also, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids increased from 2.2 to 5.0. Total polar lipid fatty acid compostion from middle mesocarp tissue (flesh) did not change as much during ripening as the polar lipid composition from the epidermis (peel). Peel tissue from the top of melons relative to the ground had unsaturation ratios of C18 fatty acids and C16 fatty acids 33% and 62% greater, respectively, than peel from the bottom of the melon. Melons of minimum maturity exposed to solar radiation had significantly more unsaturated C18 fatty acids than shaded melons. Increase in the percentage of unsaturated polar lipid fatty acids in `Honey Dew' melons may relate to increases in chilling tolerance reported to occur with ripening and solar exposure.

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Sameera Bafeel* and Frank Matta

Temperature is a major environmental factor governing the distribution of both wild and cultivated plant species. During acclimation and deacclimation plants undergo a series of metabolic changes that lead to cold hardiness or loss of hardiness. One of these changes is the accumulation of certain lipids. This research was conducted to compare hardiness among three pecan cultivars: `Desirable', `Jackson', and `Owens' growing under Mississippi condition and to determine the relationship between fatty acid levels and cold hardiness of pecan shoots. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), electrical conductivity, and tetrazolium tests were used to determine cold hardiness. Pecan stems were collected from September to March in 2002 and 2003 to determine cold acclimation and deacclimation. Fatty acid composition of pecan stems during this time period was determined by gas chromatography. DTA indicated that pecan stems acclimated in October and deacclimated in March. During cold acclimation, there was a shift in the fatty acid composition to more unsaturated fatty acids. The percentage of linoleic and linolenic fatty acids increased, while the percentage of palmitic and stearic fatty acids decreased. The correlation between unsaturated fatty acids and cold hardiness suggests that unsaturated fatty acid may play a role in membrane fluidity.

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Ashraf Abdallah, Miguel H. Ahumada, and Thomas M. Gradziel

Seed of California almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb, syn. P. amygdalus Batsch, and P. communis (L.) Arcangeli, non-Huds.] genotypes contained very low saturated fatty acids, high monounsaturated fatty acids, and low polyunsaturated fatty acids. Kernel oil consisted primarily of five fatty acids: palmetic, palmetoleic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic. Linolenic acid was only present in amounts of <0.02% and only in a few samples. Small but significant differences among genotypes and sampling sites were found in the proportions of palmetic, palmetoleic, and stearic fatty acids. The major differences in fatty acid composition among genotypes was found in the proportions of oleic, a monounsaturated fatty acid, and linoleic, a polyunsaturated fatty acid. The proportion of oleic acid was highest, ranging from ≈62% to 76%, and was highly and negatively correlated with linoleic acid levels. Usable genetic variation and a significant genotype × environment interaction were identified for oil content and composition. The introgression of new germplasm from peach and related species does not appear to reduce oil quantity or quality, and may offer opportunities for further genetic improvement of kernel oil composition.