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Usman Siswanto and Frank B. Matta

This study was established to determine the influence of scion/stock combination on leaf area, yield efficiency, and fruit quality attributes in effort to identify the most suitable scion/stock combination for Mississippi. Twenty-nine scion/stock combinations were grown at the Pontotoc Ridge-Flatwoods Research and Extension Center, North Mississippi. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with six single tree replications. `Jon-A-Red' on Mark produced the smallest leaf area, while the largest leaf area was produced by the combination of `Royal Gala' on MM106 and `Blushing Golden' on M7A. Scion/stock combinations significantly affected yield efficiency, fruit yellow pigment dvelopment, firmness and fruit mineral composition. Scion cultivars on Mark resulted in the highest yield efficiency, except `Empire'. `Ultra Gold' and `Braeburn' on Mark and `Blushing Golden' on MM111 led to yellow pigmentation in the highest category. Meanwhile, `Braeburn' on Mark was among the scion/stock combinations that produced the firmest fruit. And fruit from trees on Mark consistently had high calcium (Ca) levels. After 7 years, `Royal Gala' on Mark produced the highest yield efficiency. `Braeburn' on Mark resulted in both the firmest fruit and the highest fruit Ca concentration.

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Usman Siswanto and Frank B. Matta

The performance of spur-type apple cultivars was evaluated on MM.111, MM.106, M.7A, M.26, and Mark rootstocks. Shoot growth, leaf area, and total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) were affected by scion cultivar and rootstock. Empire on Mark stock had less shoot growth. Ultra Mac on M.7A produced smaller leaf area. `Braeburn' on Mark stock exhibited higher TNC content. Scion cultivar and stock influenced fruit weight and yield, L: D ratio, SSC, pH, and the content of N, P, K in leaves and fruit. `Braeburn' on M.7A, M.26, and MM.111 produced greater yield per tree. L: D ratio was higher in `Ultra Gold' on MM.106. `Ultra Gold' and `Jon-A-Red' had higher SSC on Mark. `Empire' and `Ultra Gold' on M.7A resulted in higher juice pH. `Empire' on MM.106 produced heavier fruit and higher N content in leaves and fruit. `Ultra Mac' on M.7A showed higher P and K content in the fruit.

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G.H. Neilsen, E.J. Hogue, and P. Parchomchuk

Application of high rates of P in the year of planting increased the number of flower clusters and fruit set the subsequent year on newly planted `Macspur McIntosh', `Summerland Red McIntosh', `Jonagold', and `Jonamac' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) on dwarfing rootstock (M.26 and M.9) in three separate experiments. The effect occurred whether P was applied at rates of 36 or 48 g P/tree as granular monoammonium phosphate (11 N-23.6 P-0K) uniformly mixed with 100 or 180 liter of soil in the planting hole or at rates of 17.5 and 35 g P applied as soluble ammonium polyphosphate (10N-14.6P-0K) with the irrigation water. A leaf P concentration range between 0.20% and 0.36% was associated with the acceleration of fruiting.

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A.S. Devyatov

Growth and fruiting of apple trees in twin-row tree-belts were studied during 5 years after planting the orchard. Distance between belts was 4 m, between rows in a belt was 1 m, between trees in row 3 or 1.5 m, giving tree densities of 1335 or 2670 trees/ha, respectively. Control was a single-row planting 4 × 3 or 4 × 1.5 m, producing densities of 833 or 1665 trees/ha. Trees were trained as hedgerow in treatments with a density of 1335 or 833 trees/ha. Each tree in a twin-row belt had a separate crown with narrow passage between trees. This passage was cut through every year. Fruiting of `Tellisaare' began at 2nd leaf, `Antey' at 3rd, and `Spartan' at 4th leaf after planting. Total yield for 3 years in the highest density treatment of single-row planting of `Antey' and `Tellisaare' was >50 t·ha–1 and in twin-row orchard construction from 36 to 57 t·ha–1, depending on orchard density. The two-fold increase in orchard density from 1335 to 2700 trees/ha raised yield of `Antey' by 58% and `Tellisaare' by 33%. Single-row treatment with a tree density of 1665/ha averaged 17.1–17.5 t·ha–1 without great expenditure on pruning of trees. The fruit quality was very high in all treatments.

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Mercy A. Olmstead, N. Suzanne Lang, Gregory A. Lang, Frank W. Ewers, and Shirley A. Owens

Dye transport through vascular pathways was examined in tissues surrounding the graft union of second-leaf, field-grown trees of `Lapins'/Gisela 5 (`Gi 5') (dwarfing) and `Lapins'/'Colt' (nondwarfing). Excavated, intact trees were allowed to take up xylemmobile dye via transpiration for 6 h before sectioning the tree into scion, graft union, and rootstock tissue. `Lapins'/'Gi 5' had a significantly larger stem cross-sectional area in the central graft union than did `Lapins'/'Colt'. Per unit cross section, dye transport of both `Lapins'/'Gi 5' and `Lapins'/'Colt' was significantly less in the graft union than in rootstock sections, with still less transported to scion tissues in `Lapins'/'Gi 5'. `Lapins'/'Gi 5' had a tendency to produce vascular elements oriented obliquely to the longitudinal axis of the tree. Dye was distributed more uniformly axially and radially across the graft union in `Lapins'/'Colt' than in `Lapins'/'Gi 5', with an apparent accumulation of dye in `Lapins'/'Gi 5' graft union. Xylem vessel diameters and vessel hydraulic diameters (VDh) were smaller overall in `Lapins'/'Gi 5' than in `Lapins'/'Colt'; however, graft unions in both had smaller VDh than did rootstock sections. These observations suggest reduced transport efficiency of xylem vessels in the graft union in `Lapins'/'Gi 5' may be due to smaller vessels, vascular abnormalities and/or increased amounts of callus and parenchyma tissue.

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Stefano Musacchi, Federico Gagliardi, and Sara Serra

result of new dwarfing rootstock selections, improvements in crop protectants to reduce rain-induced cracking, and better methods in postharvest handling and storage. New cultivars have also been released, characterized by novel traits such as precocity

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W. Alan Erb, David C. Ferree, Frank D. Morrison, Mark Pyeatt, and Richard Ryer

This study was conducted at three locations (Manhattan, Kan.; Wichita, Kan.; Wooster, Ohio) for 3 years (1994–1996). At bloom, 2-year-old limb sections from `Smoothee', `Jonagold', `Empire', and `Rome' on M.9EMLA, Bud 9, Mark, Ottawa 3, or M.26EMLA were evaluated for flowering and vegetative, spurs (5 cm or less), short shoots (5–15 cm) and long shoots (>15 cm). In mid-August, spur quality was estimated by randomly selecting five spurs per cultivar rootstock combination. There were significant location and year differences for all the morphological and spur quality characters measured. Across locations and years, the following characteristics were consistently high for the cultivars listed: stem density of flowering spurs for `Empire'; and leaf area, bud-diameter and average leaf size per spur for `Jonagold'. The most consistently high characteristics across locations and years for the rootstocks were for stem density of flowering spurs for Mark and leaf number, leaf area, bud-diameter, and average leaf size per spur for M.26EMLA. Stem density for flowering short shoots was highest for `Smoothee' and M.9EMLA in Wooster, `Jonagold' and Bud 9 in Wichita and `Rome', `Jonagold', and Bud 9 in Manhattan. Flowering long shoot stem density was highest for `Smoothee', `Jonagold', and M.26EMLA in Wooster, `Smoothee' in Wichita, and `Jonagold' and Ottawa 3 in Manhattan. There were some significant cultivar by rootstock interactions. The most-consistent interactions across locations and years were for stem cross-sectional area, stem length, stem density of flowering spurs, and flowering short shoots and bud-diameter per spur.

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John Warner

`Sturdeespur Delicious', `MacSpur`, `Summerland McIntosh', `Idared', and `Empire' apple trees (Malus domestics Borkh.) planted in 1986 on various size-controlling rootstock were used to determine the effect of rootstock on primary scaffold branch crotch angle. There were differences in crotch angle depending on rootstock. Rootstock effects were more pronounced with the upright growing `Sturdeespur Delicious' than with `Idared' and `Empire', which have a spreading growth habit. Ottawa 8 rootstock had a tendency to produce primary branches with wider crotch angles than other semidwarf to standard rootstock.

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Yong-Ping Gao, Hino Motosugi, and Akira Sugiura

Ungrafted trees of seven apple rootstock cultivars, M.4, M.7, M.11, M.26, M.27, MM.106, and Maru. bakaidou (Malus prunifolia Borkh. var. ringo Asami; weeping type), and `Fuji' (Malus domestics Borkh.) trees grafted on these seven plus M.9 and M. 16 rootstock were grown in sand. They were regularly supplied with nutrient solutions of N as ammonium alone (A), nitrate alone (T), and both (AT). With both ungrafted and grafted trees, the shoot growth of six rootstock (M.11, M.4, M.7, MM.106, M.26, and M.27) was significantly less with A than with T. With `Fuji' trees grafted on the above six rootstock, the number of flowering buds and the ratios of flowering buds to total emerged buds were significantly enhanced by treatments A and AT, especially in the formation of axillary flowering buds. Flowering and shoot growth of `Fuji' trees grafted on M. prunifolia and M.16 were slightly affected by the form of supplied N. In the xylem sap, cytokinin-like activity was detected in a single zone in paper chromatography in all rootstock and `Fuji' trees. The activity in six ungrafted rootstock (M.4, M.7, M.11, M.26, M.27, and MM.106) and `Fuji' trees grafted on these plus M.9 rootstock were higher with A than with T. Gibberellin-like activity in the same sap was detected in two zones, Rfs 0.3 to 0.4 and Rfs 0.7 to 0.8 in paper chromatography. In the six ungrafted rootstock and in `Fuji' trees grafted on these plus M.9, A led to higher activity at Rfs 0.7 to 0.S, but T led to higher activity at Rfs 0.3 to 0.4. Cytokinin-like and gibberellin-like activities in ungrafted M. prunfolia and `Fuji' trees grafted on M. prunifolia or M.16 were not affected by the form of N.

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D.M. Glenn, T. Tworkoski, R. Scorza, and S.S. Miller

The lack of dwarfing rootstocks for peach ( Bassi et al., 1994 ; Grossman and DeJong, 1998 ) has led to cultural approaches that reduce tree size and vegetative growth to establish high-density plantings. Water management through irrigation