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Chuanhao Chen, Shaoyun Lu, Youguang Chen, Zhongcheng Wang, Yuejing Niu, and Zhenfei Guo

tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in various major crops ( Ahloowalia and Maluszynski, 2001 ). The most frequent mutant character from the irradiated plants is dwarfism ( Erickson et al., 1979 ). Mutants of st. augustinegrass ( Stenotaphrum secundatum

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Marisa M. Wall

The Dwarf Brazilian banana ( Musa sp., group AAB) is grown and marketed widely in the Hawaiian islands, where it is known as the “apple” banana ( Simmonds, 1954 ). These specialty bananas contain three times more vitamin C and 1.5 times more

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Gennaro Fazio, Yizhen Wan, Dariusz Kviklys, Leticia Romero, Richard Adams, David Strickland, and Terence Robinson

apple fruit production were likely realized by European fruit fanciers who used dwarf apple trees as the graft recipients of vigorous apple cultivars, and used the same dwarf or dwarfing apple combinations in espalier production of apple fruit ( Monceau

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François Mademba-Sy, Zacharie Lemerre-Desprez, and Stéphane Lebegin

has been Flying Dragon trifoliate orange ( Bitters et al., 1979 ) in association with good yield and fruit quality ( Roose, 1986 ). The term “dwarfing” can only be applied to rootstocks that reduce tree volume by at least 75%, thus limiting tree height

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Nicola Dallabetta, Andrea Guerra, Jonathan Pasqualini, and Gennaro Fazio

The implementation of dwarfing apple rootstocks in apple orchards worldwide has resulted in increased production efficiency, reduction in input costs and the production of higher quality apples ( Robinson et al., 1991 , 1997 ; Sansavini et al

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Liping Zhang, Chen Shen, Jipeng Wei, and Wenyan Han

tea plant using 6-BA after heavy pruning in summer. The adult tea plants of Longjing 43 were used in the present study. The promoting effect of exogenous 6-BA on tea plant dwarfing, lateral bud sprouting in advance, lateral branch growth, and spring

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D.C. Ferree, J.C. Schmid, and B.L. Bishop

Survival of replicated rootstock plantings of apple trees (Malus ×domestica) to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) infection shows that a wide range of rootstock susceptibility exists. Trees on `Malling 26' (M.26), `Malling 9' (M.9), and `Mark' consistently had significant losses. Of the dwarfing rootstocks widely available commercially, `Budagovsky 9' (B.9) survived well with productive trees, but was not resistant to fire blight infection. The following experimental rootstocks had good survivability with many live productive trees in one or more trials: `Poland 2' (P.2), `Vineland 1' (V.1), `Malling 27 EMLA' (M.27 EMLA), `Budagovsky 491' (B.491), `Budagovsky 409' (B.409), `Vineland 7' (V.7), `Vineland 4' (V.4), and `Oregon Rootstock 1' (OAR1).

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James W. Frisby and Schuyler D. Seeley

Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; PD, physiologically dwarfed; TSL, total stem length. 1 Graduate Research Assistant. 2 Professor. This report is based, in part, on research conducted and supported as part of SAES Western Regional Research

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Patrick E. McCullough, Haibo Liu, and Lambert B. McCarty

Plant growth regulators are applied to inhibit uneven shoot growth of putting green turf but research is limited on responses of dwarf-type bermudagrass cultivars to growth inhibition. Experiments were conducted at the Clemson University Greenhouse Complex with `Champion' and `TifEagle' bermudagrass grown in polyvinylchloride containers with 40 cm depths and 177 cm2 areas built to United States Golf Association specification. Flurprimidol was applied at 0.14, 0.28, and 0.48 kg·ha–1 a.i. and paclobutrazol at 0.14 kg·ha–1 a.i. on separate containers. Flurprimidol at 0.28 and 0.42 kg·ha-1 caused 17% and 31% reduction in turf color 5 weeks after treatment (WAT), respectively. `Champion' exhibited unacceptable turf injury (>30%) 2 WAT from paclobutrazol and all flurprimidol rates. `TifEagle' had unacceptable turf injury from flurprimidol at 0.42 kg·ha–1 2 WAT, 0.28 kg·ha–1 3 WAT, and 0.14 kg·ha–1 4 WAT that did not recover. Moderate injury (16% to 30%) was observed from paclobutrazol on `TifEagle' but ratings were acceptable. After 6 weeks, flurprimidol at 0.14, 0.28, and 0.42 kg·ha–1 reduced bermudagrass green shoot density (GSD) per square centimeter by 20%, 40%, and 40%, respectively, while paclobutrazol reduced GSD 12%. `TifEagle' total clipping yield was reduced 60%, 76%, and 86% from flurprimidol at 0.14, 0.28, and 0.42 kg·ha–1, respectively, and 37% from paclobutrazol. `Champion' total clipping yield was reduced 82%, 90%, and 90% from flurprimidol at 0.14, 0.28, and 0.42 kg·ha–1, respectively, and 58% from paclobutrazol. After 6 weeks, flurprimidol reduced `Champion' total root mass by 44% over all three rates. `Champion' treated with paclobutrazol had similar total root mass to the untreated. `TifEagle' treated with all PGRs had similar rooting to the untreated. Overall, flurprimidol will likely not be suitable for dwarf bermudagrass maintenance at these rates; however paclobutrazol may have potential at ≤0.14 kg·ha–1. Chemical names used: Flurprimidol {α-(1-methylethyl)-α-[4-(trifluoro-methoxy) phenyl] 5-pyrimidine-methanol}; Paclobutrazol, (+/-)–(R*,R*)-β-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-α-(1, 1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4,-triazole-1-ethanol.

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Eddo Rugini, Cristian Silvestri, Marilena Ceccarelli, Rosario Muleo, and Valerio Cristofori

plantations, mainly due to the excessive vigor of the plants. The establishment of suitable new genotypes by means of traditional crossbreeding requires a great deal of time. On the contrary, the planting of vigorous local cultivars, grafted on dwarfing