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Tomasz Anisko and Orville M. Lindstrom

The effect of water stress on cold hardiness was examined in evergreen azaleas, `Coral Bell' (CB), `Hinodegiri' (HD), and `Red Ruffle' (RR). Plants were well-watered between 8 Aug. and 1 Nov. (wet) or were subjected to 3 weeks of reduced water supply starting on one of three dates, 1 Aug. (dry 1), 29 Aug. (dry 2), and 19 Sept. (dry 3). Cold hardiness of leaves and lower, middle, and upper stems was tested on 29 Aug., 19 Sept., 10 Oct., 1 Nov. By the end of each 3-week period, water potential of water stressed plants reached –1.5 to –1.8 MPa compared to around –0.8 MPa of well-watered plants. Reducing the water supply significantly increased cold hardiness of all tested plant parts in all cultivars regardless of timing of watering reduction, with two exceptions, CB middle stems on 29 Aug. and HD leaves on 19 Oct. Three weeks after rewatering cold hardiness of water-stressed plants did not differ significantly from well-watered plants, except for HD plants under dry three treatment, which continued to be 1.0 (middle stems) to 4.3 (upper stems) more cold hardy.

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Tomasz Anisko and Orville M. Lindstrom

Three cultivars of evergreen azaleas, `Coral Bell', `Hinodegiri', and `Red Ruffle', were grown under four watering regimes in containers and placed outdoors or in the greenhouse. The water content of the growing medium was maintained at either 0.3 to 0.4 or 0.5 to 0.6 m3m-3 from June 16 to August 30, when half of the plants under each of these regime was switched to the other watering regime. Freeze tests were conducted on August 30 and October 9, 1993. Injury to leaves, lower, middle, and upper stems was evaluated visually. Acclimation of leaves and upper stems prior to the August test, in most cases, was not stimulated by reduced water content, while the response of lower and middle stems was cultivar and location specific. The lower water content treatment after August 30 generally increased freeze tolerance of all plant parts regardless of the previous watering regime. The higher water content treatment after August 30 either prevented or delayed acclimation.

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David Staats, James Klett, Teri Howlett, and Matt Rogoyski

During the 2005 season, three preemergence herbicides were applied to four container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated for weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicides and application rates were: 1) Pendimethalin (Pendulum 2G) 2.24, 4.48, and 8.96 kg/ha; 2) Trifluralin and Isoxaben (Snapshot 2.5 TG) 2.8, 5.6, and 11.2 kg/ha; and 3) S-metolachlor (Pennant Magnum 7.6 EC) 2.8, 5.6, and 11.2 kg/ha. Herbicides were applied to Coral Bells (Heuchera sanguinea), Hopflower Oregano (Origanum libanoticum), CORONADO™ Hyssop (Agastache aurantiaca), and SPANISH PEAKS™ Foxglove (Digitalis thapsi). Treatments were applied twice with 30 days between applications. Plants were evaluated for phytotoxicity after 1, 2, and 4 weeks after applying herbicide treatments. No phytotoxicity symptoms were apparent on any of the plants treated with Pendulum, and plant size (dry mass) was not affected. Snapshot resulted in visual phytotoxicity with Digitalis and Heuchera at the higher rates and also resulted in smaller plants. Pennant Magnum caused phytotoxicity at all rates in all plants and resulted in significantly smaller plants than the control. Weed control was very good with all herbicides, but did not control every weed.

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Tomasz Anisko and Orville M. Lindstrom

The primary cause of losses in evergreen azaleas injured by early freeze is bark split on lower stems. Delayed acclimation in the fall is thought to permit this injury. We examined whether reduced water supply affects acclimation of Rhododendron L. `Coral Bell', `Hinodegiri', and `Red Ruffle'. Containerized plants were grown under four watering regimes and placed outdoors or in the greenhouse. The water content of the growing medium was maintained at either 0.3 to 0.4 or 0.5 to 0.6 m3·m-3 from 16 June to 30 Aug. 1993, when half of the plants under each of these regimes was switched to the other watering regime. Freeze tests were conducted on 30 Aug. and 9 (let. Injury to leaves, and lower, middle, and upper stems was evaluated visually. Acclimation of leaves and upper stems before the August test, in most cases, was not stimulated by reduced water content, while the response of lower and middle stems was cultivar- and location-specific. The lower water content treatment after 30 Aug. generally increased freeze tolerance of all plant parts regardless of the previous watering regime. The higher water content treatment after 30 Aug. either prevented or delayed acclimation. This study demonstrated that the reduced water supply provided a feasible means of promoting acclimation of evergreen azaleas in late summer.

Open access

Sean J. Markovic and James E. Klett

). Applications of benzyladenine increased branching on ‘Ruby Star’ coneflower ( Echinacea hybrid) at rates as low as 300 ppm ( Latimer et al., 2011 ), but ‘Silver Lode’ coral bells ( Heuchera hybrid ) responded minimally to an application of 600 ppm ( Latimer

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Sean J. Markovic, Shana G. Brown, and James E. Klett

, the trends did not differ. In a similar experiment involving ‘Snow Angel’ coral bells ( Heuchera sanguinea ), #1 containers produced more cuttings per square foot than both #3 and #5 containers ( Brown and Klett, 2020 ). Mean fresh weight of cuttings

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Hua Q. Zhao, Qing H. He, Li L. Song, Mei F. Hou, and Zhi G. Zhang

petioles of coral bells ( Herchera Sanguinea Engelm.) cultured in vitro, and subsequent planting and flowering ex vitro In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant 39 135 138 Ivanova, M. Novák, O. Strnad, M. Van Staden, J. 2006 Endogenous cytokinins in shoots of Aloe

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Xuan Wei, Hayk Khachatryan, and Alicia Rihn

direct costs for the annual plants ( Table 5 ) and 60% to 90% for perennial plants ( Table 6 ). Annual plants, such as petunias, pansies, impatiens (other), marigold, zinnia, and sweet alyssum, and perennial plants, such as hostas, daylilies, coral bells

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coral bells. Optimal CRF applications may save production time, reduce fertilizer costs, prevent nutrient disorders, and reduce negative environmental impacts of nutrient leaching. Importance of Hand Hygiene When Harvesting Strawberries Shaw et al. (p

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Shuyang Zhen and Stephanie E. Burnett

shown). Burnett and van Iersel (2008) and Garland et al. (2012) similarly observed that total leaf area of gaura and coral bells ( Heuchera americana ) increased linearly with increasing θ. Williams et al. (1999) reported that miniature roses