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Heidi M. Wollaeger, Kristin L. Getter, and Bridget K. Behe

hanging baskets). Conjoint development. Conjoint analysis has frequently been used to understand the effects of product attributes and consumer characteristics on product choice decisions. For example, conjoint studies have been used as a means to elicit

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Timothy A. Woods, Wuyang Hu, and Susmitha S. Nambuthiri

conjoint analysis of survey results revealed that U.S. and Canadian consumer intentions were most affected by plant type followed by origin of production and container type ( Behe et al., 2013 ). A web-based study focused in Texas to determine consumer

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Jonathan Phillips, E. Jay Holcomb, and Kathleen Kelley

to determine which product attributes appeal the most. Full-concept conjoint analysis is a widely accepted research technique that is used to help evaluate how important a product's attributes are to consumers ( SPSS Inc., 1997 ). In full

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Rebecca H. Wehry, Kathleen M. Kelley, Robert D. Berghage, and James C. Sellmer

the total possible number of combinations. Results were analyzed using conjoint analysis to estimate consumer tradeoffs when making purchasing decisions between products ( Talaga and Tucci, 2001 ). Conjoint analysis is recognized as being a valuable

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Bridget Behe, Robert Nelson, Susan Barton, Charles Hall, Charles D. Safley, and Steven Turner

Researchers often investigate consumer preferences by examining variables consecutively, rather than simultaneously. Conjoint analysis facilitates simultaneous investigation of multiple variables. Cluster analysis facilitates development of actionable market segments. Our objective was to identify relative importance and consumer preferences for flower color, leaf variegation, and price of geraniums (Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bail.) and to identify several actionable market segments. We also evaluated the desirability of a hypothetical blue geranium. Photographic images were digitized and manipulated to produce plants similar in flower area, but varying in flower color (red, lavender, pink, white, and blue), leaf variegation (plain green, dark green zone, and white zone), and price ($1.39 to $2.79). Conjoint analysis revealed that flower color was the primary consideration in the purchase decision, followed by leaf variegation and price. A cluster analysis that excluded blue geraniums yielded four actionable consumer segments. When preferences for the blue geranium were included, six consumer segments were identified.

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Bridget K. Behe, Patricia T. Huddleston, Charles R. Hall, Hayk Khachatryan, and Benjamin Campbell

noticed the plant brands before the study. The younger age cohorts were more likely to buy branded herb and vegetable plants than the older age cohort. A conjoint analysis showed that plant type was the most important product attribute to consumers. Price

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Bridget K. Behe, Patricia Huddleston, and Lynnell Sage

). Conjoint analysis has been used to understand the purchase drivers and willingness to pay for attributes and attribute levels for a wide range of horticultural products, including Christmas trees ( Behe et al., 2005b ), landscapes ( Behe et al., 2005a

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Christopher A. Frank, Robert G. Nelson, Eric H. Simonne, Bridget K. Behe, and Amarat H. Simonne

Most bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) produced and consumed are green. However, yellow, red, orange, white, black, and purple bell peppers are also available. While bell pepper consumption in the United States has been increasing in the past 10 years, limited information is available on how their color, retail price, and vitamin C content influence consumer preferences. A conjoint analysis of 435 consumer responses showed that, for the total sample, color was about three times more important than retail price in shaping consumers' purchase decisions, while vitamin C content was nearly irrelevant. Six distinct consumer segments were identified through cluster analysis. Four segments favored green peppers, while one segment favored yellow and one favored brown. Demographic variables generally were not good predictors of segment membership, but several behavioral variables, such as past bell pepper purchases, were significantly related to segment membership. While green is generally the preferred color, market segments exist for orange, red, yellow, and even brown peppers. Applications to marketing strategies suggested that price sensitivity could explain why green peppers were priced individually, but those of other colors were priced by weight, and that promotion of increased vitamin C content would be most effective if associated specifically with yellow and orange peppers.

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Benjamin L. Campbell, Robert G. Nelson, Robert C. Ebel, William A. Dozier, John L. Adrian, and Brandon R. Hockema

Satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu) have been produced intermittently along the Gulf Coast for over a century. However, very little is known about the market potential for this citrus fruit in today's consumer markets. This study evaluated consumer preferences for seven external attributes over a range of levels: price ($1.07, $2.18, or $4.39/kg), color (green-yellow, yellow-orange, or orange), size (5.08, 6.35, or 7.62 cm in diameter), seediness (0, 3, or 7 seeds), blemishes (0, 1.91, or 3 cm in diameter), production region label (Alabama or U.S.A.), and organic production (yes or no). Consumers from grocery stores in nine cities in Alabama and Georgia were asked to evaluate 20 photographs of various combinations of these attribute levels using a seven-point intention-to-buy scale. 605 useable surveys were collected and a conjoint analysis was conducted to determine the strength of preference for the attribute levels and the relative importance for attributes. Three consumer segments were identified by cluster analysis of strengths of preferences: the no-blemish segment (37% of sample), the price-sensitive segment (23% of sample), and the no-seeds segment (41% of sample). A multinomial logit analysis identified several demographic, socioeconomic, and usage variables as significant determinants of segment membership.

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Benjamin L. Campbell, Isabelle Lesschaeve, Amy J. Bowen, Stephen R. Onufrey, and Howard Moskowitz

to gain a premium, but rather to increase quantity sales. For this reason, articles solely focusing on WTP may be underestimating the true effect of a product attribute, e.g., local or organic logo. Third, we used a conjoint analysis methodology