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Phil Sheridan, Winnie W. Ho, Yann Rodenas, and Donald G. Ruch

Striking color and visual contrasts are widespread across angiosperms, often functioning as attractants that mediate important plant–insect interactions such as pollination ( Bradshaw and Schemske, 2003 ; Chittka and Menzel, 1992 ; Lehrer, 1994

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Jason D. Lattier and Ryan N. Contreras

winterhardiness, range of flower colors, and unique flower phenotypes, including single-flowered and double-flowered forms ( Contreras and Lattier, 2014 ). Breeders have noted the potential for improvement in althea due to their range of flower color and form and

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Greg McCollum and Pilar Maul

to oranges, neither ethylene nor 1-MCP had significant effect on color change in ‘Oroblanco’ a pummelo × grapefruit hybrid ( Porat et al., 2001 ). Treatment with 1-MCP will also inhibit ethylene-induced abscission in citrus ( Sisler et al., 1999

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Michael J. Havey

The color of onion ( Allium cepa ) bulbs is one of the most important consumer traits, and bulb colors can be white, yellow, red, or chartreuse ( El-Shafie and Davis, 1967 ). White bulbs are conditioned by a dominant allele at the inhibitor ( I

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Audrey Darrigues, Jack Hall, Esther van der Knaap, David M. Francis, Nancy Dujmovic, and Simon Gray

characterization that is typically prone to bias. There are a number of computer image acquisition and analysis techniques for color in foods such as apple [ Malus × domestica Borkh ( Leemans et al., 2002 ; Li et al., 2002 )], banana [ Musa cavendishii L

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Cristián Vela-Hinojosa, Héctor B. Escalona-Buendía, José A. Mendoza-Espinoza, Juan M. Villa-Hernández, Ricardo Lobato-Ortíz, Juan E. Rodríguez-Pérez, and Laura J. Pérez-Flores

m. Plants were grown in volcanic sand substrate and a Steiner nutrient solution ( Steiner, 1961 ) leading to plants with a single stem. Fruit were selected when ripe on the basis of a color chart developed specifically for each genotype according to

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Jessica G. Barb, Dennis J. Werner, and Robert J. Griesbach

Flavonoids, carotenoids, and betalains are three classes of pigments that produce flower color in plants. Of these pigments, flavonoids are the most abundant and responsible for a broad range of flower colors, including pale yellow, ivory, pink

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Ross C. Braun, Jack D. Fry, Megan M. Kennelly, Dale J. Bremer, and Jason J. Griffin

the first autumn frost and remain dormant until mid to late spring. Some turf managers in the transition zone may avoid the use of warm-season grasses because customers object to the brown color during dormancy. The warm-season grasses buffalograss and

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Cary Pirone, Jodie V. Johnson, J. Martin E. Quirke, Horacio A. Priestap, and David Lee

sepal tissue are stored in spindle-shaped chromoplasts ( Simpson et al., 1975 ). Petal color is enhanced by papillar processes in the epidermis, which refract light ( Kronsteadt and Walles, 1986 ). Fig. 1. Strelitzia reginae . ( A ) Inflorescence

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Luiz C. Argenta, Xuetong Fan, and James P. Mattheis

ethylene production were analyzed as described earlier ( Fan et al., 1999a ; Mattheis et al., 1998 ). Peel color was measured with a colorimeter (Minolta CR-200, Osaka, Japan) using CIE illuminant C and an 8-mm-diameter aperture. Color values a* and b