The activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase decreased while peroxidase activity increased in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L., cv. `Elite') during storage at 5°C. Preconditioning of squash at 15°C for 2 days prior to the cold storage reduced the decline of catalase activity and suppressed the increase in peroxidase activity. The superoxide dismutase activity remained higher in temperature conditioned squash than in untreated squash. These results indicate that acclimation to chilling temperature in squash may also involve modifications in the activities of catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase.
Ahmet Korkmaz and Robert J. Dufault
Muskmelon (Cucumis melo) seedlings are transplanted in late winter or early spring before last frost date to ensure early yields; however, this makes them very vulnerable to temperatures cycling between almost freezing and optimal temperatures. To simulate temperature alternations that may occur after field transplanting, `Athena', `Sugar Bowl', `Eclipse' muskmelon, and `Tesorro Dulce' honeydew (C. melo) transplants were subjected to 2 ± 1 °C (35.6 ± 1.8 °F) in a walk-in cooler and then to 29 ± 5 °C (84.2 ± 9.0 °F) in a greenhouse before field planting. In 1998, transplants were exposed to 2 °C for 9 to 54 hours, and for 9 to 81 hours in 1999. `Athena' and `Sugar Bowl' yielded less early melons in both years, whereas `Eclipse' and `Tesoro Dulce' early yields were only reduced in 1999. Total yields of `Athena' decreased linearly in both years with 10% yield reduction occurring with 12 to 21 hours of cold stress. Total yields of `Sugar Bowl' decreased linearly in both years with 11 to 18 hours of cold stress causing 10% yield reduction in 1998 and 1999, respectively. Therefore, early planting before last frosts of all these muskmelon and honeydew cultivars should be done with caution since reductions in early yields are highly probable.
Ahmet Korkmaz and Robert J. Dufault
For the earliest yields of spring melons, muskmelon [Cucumis melo L. (Reticulatus Group)] fields in the southeast United States may be transplanted in late winter before the last frost date. Seedlings may be exposed to cold temperatures cycling between almost freezing and optimal for weeks before warm weather predominates and such exposure may reduce later growth and yields. To test whether cold stress may reduce growth and yield, `Athena' muskmelon seedlings were subjected to cold stress at 2 ± 1 °C then transferred to a greenhouse at 29 ± 5 °C before field transplanting. In 1997, cold exposure durations were 3, 6, or 9 h and were repeated (frequency) for 1, 3, 6, or 9 d before transplanting. In 1998, duration levels were not changed but frequencies were 3, 6, or 9 d. In 1997, as cold stress increased, seedling shoot and root fresh and dry weights, height, leaf area, and leaf chlorophyll content decreased linearly, but shoot carbohydrates decreased curvilinearly and stabilized with ≈54 hours cold stress. In 1998, all seedling growth characteristics except leaf chlorophyll content decreased linearly as cold stress exposure increased. Leaf chlorophyll content decreased curvilinearly as cold stress increased to 36 h, but leveled off with more hours of cold stress. Even 1 week after transplanting, plants exposed to cold stress for up to 81 h continued to transpire more than control plants. In both years, vining (date first runner touched the ground) and male and female flowering were delayed significantly with increasing cold stress, but fruit set was affected only in 1998. Cold stress in 1998 delayed earliness with early fruit weight and number per plot decreasing as cold stress exposure increased. Total yields decreased linearly in both years as cold stress increased with 21 to 32 hours causing 10% yield reduction in 1997 and 1998, respectively. Results indicate a potential risk exists for yield reduction if `Athena' muskmelon is planted weeks before last frost dates.
Ahmet Korkmaz and Robert J. Dufault
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) seedlings transplanted before the last frost date may be exposed to temperatures alternating between freezing and optimal until field temperatures finally stabilize. Cold stress may ultimately reduce growth and yield. To simulate such temperature alternations that occur naturally after field transplanting, diploid `Carnival' watermelon seedlings were exposed immediately before field planting to cyclic cold temperature stress at 2 ± 1 °C then transferred to a greenhouse at 29 ± 5 °C. In 1997, transplants were exposed to 2 °C from 3 to 81 hours and in 1998, exposure ranged from 9 to 81 hours. Cold-stressed seedlings were field planted after all potential risk of cold stress in the field had passed. In 1997, cold stress decreased seedling shoot and root fresh and dry weights, leaf area, chlorophyll and carbohydrate contents but not seedling height. In 1998, all seedling growth variables decreased in response to longer durations of cold stress. Plants cold stressed for up to 81 hours transpired more for 1 week after transplanting than those exposed to shorter periods of cold stress. In both years, vining (date first runner touched the ground), flowering, and fruit set were delayed significantly as cold stress hours increased. Although early yields were unaffected, total yields decreased linearly in both years with increasing hours of cold, with 38 to 40 hours of cold stress reducing yield 10% in both years. Data indicate that `Carnival' watermelon transplants exposed to cold stress soon after transplanting may suffer yield reductions.
Ahmet Korkmaz and Robert J. Dufault
Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum. & Nakai.] seedlings may be repeatedly exposed to temperatures alternating between almost freezing and optimum soon after field transplanting. `Carnival', `Crimson Sweet', `Millionaire' and `Crimson Trio' watermelon transplants were exposed to cold temperature stress at 2 ± 1 °C in a walk-in cooler and then to 29 ± 5 °C in a greenhouse immediately before field planting to simulate temperature alternations that may occur after field transplanting. Cold-stressed transplants were field planted after all risk of ambient cold stress passed. In 1998, transplants were exposed to 2 °C from 9 hours to 54 hours, and in 1999 from 9 to 81 hours. Early yields of all cultivars, except Carnival, significantly decreased with increasing hours of cold stress in both years. Total yields of `Carnival' decreased linearly in both years with a 10% yield reduction occurring from 14 to 15 hours of cold stress. `Crimson Sweet' yields were reduced in 1999 only, with 16 hours of cold stress reducing yield 10%.
The effects of incorporating plant growth regulators into the priming solution on low temperature germination and emergence percentage performance of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum `Demre') seeds before and after seed storage were investigated. Seeds were primed in 3% KNO3 solution for 6 days at 25 °C in darkness containing one of the following: 1, 3, 5, or 10 μm methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 mm acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Following priming, seeds were either immediately subjected to germination and emergence tests at 15 °C or stored at 4 °C for 1 month after which they were subjected to germination test at 15 °C. Priming pepper seeds in the presence or absence of plant growth regulators in general improved final germination percentage (FGP), germination rate (G50) and germination synchrony (G10-90) at 15 °C compared to nonprimed seeds which had an FGP of 44%, G50 of 7.3 days and G10-90 of 7.3 days. Priming seeds in KNO3 solution containing 0.1 mm of ASA resulted in the highest germination percentage (91%), fastest germination rate (G50 = 2.2 days) and the most synchronous germination (G10-90 = 6.1 days). Emergence percentages were the highest for the seeds primed in the presence of 0.1 mm ASA (85%) and 3 μm MeJA (84%) while nonprimed seeds had an emergence percentage of 40%. Fastest emergence rates (E50) were also obtained from seeds primed in KNO3 supplemented with 3 μm MeJA (E50 = 15.2 days) and 0.1 mm ASA (E50 = 15.2 days). Shoot fresh and dry weights of pepper seedlings were significantly affected by priming treatments and priming in the presence of 0.1 mm ASA resulted in highest seedling shoot fresh and dry weights. Although all priming treatments improved germination performance of pepper seeds at 15 °C following 1 month of storage, inclusion of 0.1 mm ASA into the priming solution resulted in the highest germination percentage (84%) and germination rate (G50 = 3.8 days). These results indicate that priming seeds in 0.1 mm of ASA or 3 μm MeJA incorporated into the KNO3 solution can be used as an effective method to improve low temperature performance of sweet pepper seeds and that these seeds can be stored for 1 month at 4 °C and still exhibit improved germination performance at 15 °C.
Ningguang Dong, Jianxun Qi, Yuanfa Li, Yonghao Chen, and Yanbin Hao
Among the various types of environmental stress, chilling stress is one of the most important factors limiting the productivity and distribution of plants. Chilling temperatures, defined as low but not freezing temperatures (0 to 15 °C), are common
Lijian Liang, Yanming Deng, Xiaobo Sun, Xinping Jia, and Jiale Su
CI is one of the main restrictive factors affecting the growth and use of tropical plants in temperate and subtropical areas. Under chilling stress condition, physiological and biochemical processes, including growth rate, photosynthesis
Judith A. Abbott, A. Raymond Miller, and T. Austin Campbell
Mechanical stress received by pickling cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) during harvest can cause physiological degeneration of the placental tissues, rendering the cucumbers unsuitable for use in some pickled products. Cucumbers were subjected to controlled stresses by dropping and rolling under weights to induce such degeneration. Following storage at various temperatures for O, 24, and 48 hours, refreshed delayed light emission from chlorophyll (RDLE) was measured and transmission electron micrographs of chloroplasts were made. Mechanical stress rapidly suppressed RDLE and induced accumulation of starch granules within the chloroplasts. Rolling usually had a greater effect on RDLE than did dropping. After 48 hours, RDLE suppression persisted; starch granules were no longer evident in chloroplasts from mechanically stressed fruit, but very electron-dense inclusions had developed in the chloroplasts. Storage temperatures affected RDLE levels but had minimal interaction with stress responses. Cucumber lots subjected to excessive mechanical stress likely could be detected using RDLE measurement.
Sukhvinder Pal Singh and Zora Singh
in response to postharvest stress conditions. Currently, such comprehensive information on the dynamics of antioxidants during chilling stress in many fruit including japanese plums is not available. Therefore, the objective was to understand the