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Mark W. Farnham and Dean A. Kopsell

Carotenoids are lipid-soluble, secondary plant metabolites in vegetables reported to confer positive health-promoting effects when consumed in the diet ( Kopsell and Kopsell, 2006 ). Two nutritionally important, plant-derived carotenoids are

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Charles R. Brown, David Culley, Meredith Bonierbale, and Walter Amorós

subset of the extant variation in native Andean cultivars. These colors are primarily red and blue anthocyanins that are present in skin or flesh to varying degrees and yellow to orange carotenoids in the flesh that display a broad variation in content

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Carl E. Sams, Dilip R. Panthee, Craig S. Charron, Dean A. Kopsell, and Joshua S. Yuan

Glucosinolates and carotenoids are two classes of secondary metabolites in the Brassicaceae that are important in plant metabolism and for the dietary health benefits that they convey. Glucosinolates are sulfur-containing compounds present in a

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Peter J. Mes, Peter Boches, James R. Myers, and Robert Durst

. These colors come about from interactions of the carotenoid-based pericarp color (controlled by several genes), presence or absence of color in the epidermis (gene symbol y ), and presence or absence of the green shoulder trait ( u ) and the green

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T. Casey Barickman, Dean A. Kopsell, and Carl E. Sams

increase in total and xanthophyll carotenoid concentrations by 122% protecting photosystem II (PSII) against photoinhibition at low temperatures ( Ivanov et al., 1995 ). Haisel et al. (2006) found that seedlings of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ), tobacco

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Rachel A. Itle and Eileen A. Kabelka

Carotenoids are the principle pigments responsible for the many colors of leaves, fruits, and flowers in plants ( Gross, 1991 ). They act as photoprotective agents and accessory light-harvesting complexes. Carotenoids also play an important role in

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Dean A. Kopsell, J. Scott McElroy, Carl E. Sams, and David E. Kopsell

species. Adapted from U (1935) . Carotenoids are C 40 isoprenoid polyene plant secondary compounds that form lipid-soluble yellow, orange, and red pigments ( Zaripheh and Erdman, Jr., 2002 ). The carotenoids can be divided into two groups: 1

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Ryan N. Contreras, John M. Ruter, James S. Owen Jr., and Andy Hoegh

, increased levels of carotenoids, and production of antioxidants or reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes. During winter, japanese-cedar has been shown to demonstrate two principle mechanisms to deal with excess light energy. The amount of

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Jennifer Bonina-Noseworthy, J. Brent Loy, Joanne Curran-Celentano, Rebecca Sideman, and Dean A. Kopsell

Carotenoids are ubiquitous fat-soluble, yellow-, orange-, and red-pigmented compounds found in leaves as part of the chloroplast structure and in the chromoplasts of many root and fruit crops ( Britton and Khachik, 2009 ). They are typically

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Keisuke Nonaka, Masayuki Kita, Yoshinori Ikoma, Hiroshi Fukamachi, Atsushi Imai, Terutaka Yoshioka, and Masahiko Yamada

Carotenoid pigments are essential for protecting plants from photo-oxidative damage and photoinhibition in photosynthesis ( Goodwin, 1980 ). They are also essential to human health: a number of carotenoids serve as provitamin A, which is essential