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Gary VanEe, Richard Ledebuhr, Eric Hanson, Jim Hancock, and Donald C. Ramsdell

Most highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) in Michigan are treated annually with fungicides and insecticides with several types of sprayers. The goal of this study was to determine how sprayer type, pruning severity, and canopy development interact to affect spray deposition patterns. Deposition was measured as the percentage of the surface area of card targets that was covered following applications of black dye. Light measurements indicated that the canopy of blueberry bushes, regardless of pruning treatment, closed by the middle of June, and light levels within the canopy changed little from then until fruit harvest in August. A standard airblast sprayer that pushed spray up and through bushes provided acceptable deposition in all parts of the canopy early in the season, but later in the season, coverage was poor in the top and sides furthest from the sprayer. An above-row sprayer with fan-driven micronozzles also provided acceptable coverage throughout the bushes early in the season, but once the canopy had closed, coverage was poor in the bottom of the bush. Both sprayers were operated in bushes receiving light, moderate, and heavy pruning. The more severe pruning regimes increased the amount of spray deposited from the above-row sprayer, but not from the airblast sprayer.

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Oleg Daugovish, Hai Su, and W. Douglas Gubler

. Foliar sprays of strobilurin fungicides and captan have suppressed disease incidence of fruit rot ( Black et al., 1990 ; Freeman et al., 1997 ; Su and Gubler, 2006 ). However, infections of the root system were not controlled by aboveground fungicide

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Zana C. Somda, Harry A. Mills, and Sharad C. Phatak

As a result of long-term application, some fungicides may accumulate in the soil to levels that can affect soil N transformations and plant growth. Studies were initiated to compare benomyl, captan, and lime-sulfur fungicides with the biological nitrification inhibitors (NI) nitrapyrin and terrazole for their effects on biological nitrification and denitrification, and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth and N uptake. In laboratory studies, inhibition of nitrification was less than 5% in a Tifton l.s. soil incubated with 10 μg g -1 a.i. of benomyl but was about 51%, 72%, and more than 85% when amended with lime-sulfur, captan, and NI, respectively. Similarly, increased inhibitory effects on denitrification of NO3 were obtained in a liquid media incubated anaerobically with either NI (37%) than captan or lime-sulfur (25%) while benomyl had no significant effect. In greenhouse studies with tomato plants, weekly drench applications of 0.25 μg a.i. g -1 soil of the appropriate chemical for 4 weeks with three NH4:NO3 ratios showed that the NI and captan produced the greatest plant biomass and N uptake, but benomyl and lime-sulfur had no main effect while all fungicides interacted with the N ratio to affect plant growth and N uptake.

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David N. Sasseville

Tomato plants were grown in a greenhouse in a sand:soil mixture with six pesticide treatments applied weekly at 1 mg a.i./kg soil mixture as a soil drench. Plants were grown for six weeks with nitrogen applied weekly at 80 mg per plant as calcium nitrate. Glyphosate (Roundup) was toxic to plants with reduced dry weight of all tissues, but greater nitrate concentration in the leaf and root tissues. Captan produced the greatest dry weight, with mot tissues dry weights significantly greater than the control treatment. Captan resulted in significantly higher nitrate content in the tissues, but there was no difference between captan and the control on total N content. Both nitrapyrin (N-Serve) and sethoxydim (Poast) had significantly less growth and total N content than the control, as well as higher nitrate content in the growing medium. It appears that these two chemicals may inhibit nitrate uptake or cause other phytotoxic effects The other chemicals metalaxyl (Subdue) and etridiazole (Terrazole) had intermediate responses. While they both had reduced growth and total N content, these were not significantly different from the control treatment. Etridiazole had reduced nitrate content, but metalaxyl nitrate content was significantly greater than the control and comparable to captan, primarily because of high nitrate content in the leaves.

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Fumiomi Takeda and Wojciech Janisiewicz

Restrictions on pesticide usage and the occurrence of fungicide resistant strains of postharvest pathogens have necessitated research for alternative methods of disease control. Psuedomonas cepacia was tested for control of Botrytis fruit rot in strawberry. Results of field applications of P. cepacia were variable. A compound isolated from P. cepacia, identified as pyrrolnitrin, was as effective as Benlate/captan (2,000 ppm) sprays in field applications. Postharvest pyrrolnitrin (100 ppm) dip inhibited growth of pathogens for three days at room temperature. A pyrrolnitrin dip followed by storage at 1°C for five days extended the shelf-life for another five days. Preharvest pyrrolnitrin sprays to `Bristol' black raspberry delayed rot development by 4 to 5 days. Captan (2,000 ppm) treatment provided no protection. In vitro tests showed that B. cinerea isolated from the fruit had developed resistance to captan. These results suggest that the use of a naturally-produced compound might afford another opportunity to reduce postharvest rots without the use of synthetic fungicides.

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Nancy E. Maness and James E. Motes

`Arp' rosemary cuttings were treated with indole butyric acid (IBA) using three different application procedures to determine speed and quality of rooted cuttings produced at three weeks under mist. Five concentrations of IBA, 0%, 0.8%, 1.6%, 3.0%, and 4.5%, and three methods of application were compared. Methods of application were 1) cuttings treated with solutions containing IBA, captan, benomyl, and streptomycin applied as a one minute soak or 2) as a post plant drench or 3) cuttings soaked for one minute in a solution of captan, benomyl and streptomycin and then dipped into IBA + talc mixture. After the treatments were applied, the cuttings were placed on a mist bench for three weeks. Visual shoot ratings were made weekly and visual root ratings were made at three and four weeks after treatments were applied. Root dry weights were determined. Results indicated the one minute soak in a captan, benomyl, and streptomycin solution then dipped in 0.8% IBA + talc consistently resulted in a higher quality rooted cutting.

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Rhoda L. Burrows* and Ismail Ahmed

Fungicides applied as soil drenches affect arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization of plant roots to different degrees, depending on the chemical used. However, the effect of fungicides applied as seed treatments has been less studied, and is of particular interest to growers who want to encourage beneficial mutualisms while protecting seedlings against pathogens. We tested the effects of four common seed treatments, Apron (mefenoxam), Thiram, Raxil (tebuconzaole), and Captan on colonization of `Superstar' muskmelon roots by the AM fungus Glomus intraradices in the greenhouse. By 30 days after planting, colonization was very high (>90% root length) for all treatments, with relatively minor (<10%) differences in percent length root with AM hyphae. The Apron seed treatment had the highest percent root length with hyphae, but the lowest amount of vesicles, while roots from Raxil and Captan-treated seeds had the lowest hyphal colonization and highest vesicle formation. Myconate ®, a commercial formulation of formononetin, an isoflavone previously shown to increase AM colonization, significantly increased the percent colonization of roots from the Raxil treatment, but not other treatments. Myconate also increased vesicle numbers in all but the Captan treatments, but not significantly.

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A. Talaie and M. Zarrabi

To study the reasons for the losses of rooted semihardwood cuttings of olive propagated under the mist method, a 2-year experiment was carried out at the Horticulture Dept. of Faculty of Agriculture of the Tehran Univ. In this experiment, semihardwood cuttings of olive (Zard cultivar) in four different media—heavy-(Al), semi-heavy(A2), medium (A3), and light (A4), all disinfected with two different concentrations of Captan—were used. Root growth stages with low, medium, and light densities in spring and fall were evaluated. The results indicate that there are the least losses in semi-heavy (A2) and medium (A3) media. This could be the result of a better ventilation conditions in these media, which activates N and Ca and finally accelerates the better growth conditions in all young rooted cuttings. On the other hand, it was clear that inadequate disinfection will result in losses of rooted cuttings, and using Captan at 2 ppm gives the best result. This research indicate that, with the higher growth rate, the first medium will have the fewer losses. The reason is the higher density and more durability and strength of the root, which control the disease-causing factors; so far that these factors do not influence the young roots. Finally, strong and dense roots show less losses. This experiment was designed in a factorial with randomized complete block and the averages were compared in a Duncan test and the results of abnormally distributed characteristics were shown by using logarithmic and sinus method.

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Carlos A. Parera and Daniel J. Cantliffe

Poor emergence and low seedling vigor are characteristics of many supersweet sweet corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars carrying the shrunken-2 (sh2) gene. Four sh2 sweet corn cultivar seeds [`How Sweet It Is' (HSII), `Crisp N' Sweet 711' (CNS-711), `Sweet Belle' (SB), and `Dazzle' (DZ)] were solid-matrix-primed (SMP), SMP with sodium hypochlorite (SMPcl), treated with a fungicide combination (F) (Imazalil + Captan + Apron + Thiram), or primed with the aforementioned fungicides (SMPf). The seed treatments were tested in the laboratory and the field. Seed imbibition and leachate electrical conductivity were lower in SMP seeds than in nonprimed seeds. In the field, emergence percentage and rate of CNS-711 and SB (high-vigor seeds) were not improved by the seed treatments compared to the nontreated seeds. Emergence percentage and rate of HSII and DZ (considered low-vigor seeds) were improved as a result of SMPcl, SMPf, or F treatments compared to nonprimed seeds. Compared to the F treatment, the SMPcl presowing treatment increased DZ seedling emergence rate and percentage. The combined SMP and seed disinfection via NaOCl seems to be a promising fungicide seed-treatment substitute that improves the stand establishment and seedling vigor of sh2 sweet corn cultivars. Chemical names used: 1-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(2-propenyloxy)ethyl]-1 H imidazole (Imazalil); N-[(trichloromethyl)thio]-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide(Captan); N- (2,6-dimethylphenyl)- N -(methoxyacetyl)alanine methyl ester (Apron); tetramethylthiuram disulfide (Thiram).