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Michael G. Bausher

cells as the “interdigitation” of callus cells, which is part of the process of wound healing, thus increasing the overall PF necessary to separate the graft ( Moore and Walker, 1981 ). The increase in surface area from 45° to 70 o was 2.10-fold that of

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Andrea Swanberg and Wenhao Dai

for periwinkle species. Literature Cited Abou-Mandour, A. Fischer, S. Czygan, F. 1979 Regeneration of intact plants from haploid and diploid callus cells of Catharanthus roseus Z Pflanzen-physiol Bot

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Milica Ćalović, Chunxian Chen, Qibin Yu, Vladimir Orbović, Frederick G. Gmitter Jr, and Jude W. Grosser

, organs, and whole somatic embryos (which were appearing directly from the callus cells with high embryogenic potential) were regularly discarded through visual selection to maintain the callus in an undifferentiated state as a prerequisite for successful

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Sadiye Hayta, Mark A. Smedley, Jinhong Li, Wendy A. Harwood, and Philip M. Gilmartin

-week period green shoots started to emerge ( Fig. 1G ), followed by leaf expansion ( Fig. 1H ). The regeneration was identified as adventitious shoot regeneration since the shoots were connected to callus cells by vascular tissue formation and were of a

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Yan Xu and Bingru Huang

.M. Bezrukova, M.V. Shayakhmetov, I.F. 1995 The effect of heat-shock on the accumulation of ABA and lectin in wheat callus cells Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 42 621 623 Stout, R.G. Al-Niemi, T.S. 2002 Heat

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Wei Wu, Shijia Wen, Tangkai Feng, Guoke Chen, and Bo Yang

vigorous metabolic capacity of the plant’s callus cells. In Origin of Chinese Characters of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Shen Xu (2018) refers to L. chinense as jianmu , in reference to a Chinese folk recipe for a type of herbal medicine. The species

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Bärbel Röck-Okuyucu, Meltem Bayraktar, Ismail Hakki Akgun, and Aynur Gurel

SGs. The initiation of the biosynthesis of SGs is reported to take place in chloroplasts ( Brandle and Telmer, 2007 ; Ladygin et al., 2008 ). Heterotrophic callus cells grown in the dark held almost no pigments and they did not synthesize SGs

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Aditi D. Satpute, Chunxian Chen, Fredrick G. Gmitter Jr., Peng Ling, Qibin Yu, Melinda R. Grosser, Jude W. Grosser, and Christine D. Chase

( Grosser et al., 2000 ; Guo et al., 2013 ). Two types of outcomes are recovered from somatic cell fusions in which protoplasts isolated from the embryogenic callus/cell suspension are fused with the protoplasts derived from the nonembryogenic leaf

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Feifei Li, Da Zhan, Lixin Xu, Liebao Han, and Xunzhong Zhang

effect of heat-shock on the accumulation of ABA and lectin in wheat callus cells Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 42 621 623 Smirnoff, N. 1993 The role of active oxygen in the response of plants to water-deficit and desiccation New Phytol. 125 27 58 Stepien, P

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Zhimin Yang, Jingjin Yu, Emily Merewitz, and Bingru Huang

associated with upregulation of antioxidant activity in callus cells of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) ( Bellaire et al., 2000 ) and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) ( Agarwal et al., 2005 ) and bermudagrass