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Sadiye Hayta, Mark A. Smedley, Jinhong Li, Wendy A. Harwood, and Philip M. Gilmartin

was solidified with 1.75 g·L −1 Phytagel. Primula callus induction (PCI) medium consisted of basal medium supplemented with 1.7 mg·L −1 silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ), 4.0 mg·L −1 2,4-D, and 2.0 mg·L −1 TDZ or combinations of 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mg·L −1

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Jenna Sicuranza and Nathaniel A. Mitkowski

additional 5 months. A statistical analysis of the data was performed using the General Linear Model procedure of SPSS (Chicago). Results and Discussion Both callus and shoot tissue produced from callus of R. catawbiense ‘English Roseum’ were

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Xiaoming Wang, Jianjun Chen, Yongxin Li, Qiying Nie, and Junbin Li

simple and efficient protocol for rapid regeneration of ‘Jincuilei’ was not well developed. The objectives of this study were to establish an efficient procedure for inducing callus and adventitious shoot formation of ‘Jincuilei’ and determine if the

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Nirmala Rajbhandari and Anne-Marie Stomp

Mass propagation of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir], a valuable Christmas tree species in the United States, is problematic because methods currently used are inadequate. According to our results with somatic embryogenesis, the culturing methods used with other Abies species are applicable to Fraser fir. Stage 1 somatic embryogenic callus, characterized by suspensor cells and embryo heads, was obtained at low frequency using Schenk and Hildebrandt medium supplemented with 5 mm glutamine, 0.05% casein hydrolysate, 0.01% myoinositol, 2% sucrose, 5 μM benzyladenine, and 0.6% agar. The developmental stage of the embryo was important; embryogenic callus was obtained only with immature, precotyledonary embryos, not with fully formed embryos. Cold storage of cones containing immature embryos inhibited callus proliferation. Genotype was significant in that 35 of 44 families tested proliferated callus; however, only one embryo within one family continued proliferation to produce stage 1 embryogenic callus. Fully formed somatic embryos were not produced because the callus did not continue to proliferate. Although these experiments met with only limited success, they demonstrate the potential for somatic embryogenesis in Fraser fir and the general applicability of methods used with other Abies species.

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Guochen Yang, Zhongge (Cindy) Lu, and Carl E. Niedziela Jr.

This research was initiated to study different culture media and plant growth regulators for their influences on callus initiation and production, with a research goal of developing an efficient in vitro callus regeneration protocol for guava (Psidium guajava L.). Guava is an important tropical fruit species that is rich in vitamins and vitamin precursors, minerals, organic acids, and pectins. Seventy-nine phytochemicals provide guava with many unique properties and actions, including anti-microbial, astringent, bactericidal, cicatrizant, emmenagogue, hypoglycemic, laxative, nutritive, and spasmolytic. Different concentrations of various plant growth regulators (PGR), such as 6-benzyladenine (BA), kinetin, or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were added to basic Murashige and Skoog (MS) and woody plant medium (WPM) and tested for their influences. Differences in callus initiation and morphology were noticed between MS and WPM, and among PGR concentration treatments.

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W. Garrett Owen and Roberto G. Lopez

). The rate at which callus and adventitious root (AR) initials develop is temperature-dependent, thereby effecting AR formation (ARF) in cuttings. In addition, outdoor DLIs during late winter to early spring months are relatively low (5 to 20 mol·m −2 ·d

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Ellen B. Peffley and Melanie A. Hart

Particle bombardment was investigated as a potential transformation method for onion. Seeds of Allium cepa `TG 1015' were planted onto BDS medium and placed in a dark incubator at 25C for germination. Two to 3 weeks after the seeds were germinated, meristems (1 to 2 mm) were excised and placed onto BDS medium containing 2 mg 2,4-D/liter for callus initiation. Callus was transferred monthly onto fresh BDS medium containing 2,4-D until bombardment. The reporter gene for B-glucuronidase (GUS) expression was used to assess efficiency of gene delivery in all particle bombardments. Characteristics examined were target distance and helium pressure (particle velocity). Tissues were subjected to the 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoyl-B-D-glucuronide (xgluc) test for detection of GUS activity. Measurements were taken on particle dispersion as affected by target distance and helium pressure. GUS expression was detected in putatively transformed tissues.

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J.M. Van Eck and S.L. Kitto

Plant regeneration from callus cultures of mint depended on expiant source, genotype, and culture medium components. Mature embryos, seedling and flower parts, as well as chilled or desiccated immature embryos of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) were cultured on a Murashige-Skoog medium containing various combinations of growth factors. Shoots regenerated from callus that developed either on mature peppermint embryos cultured on medium that contained BA at 0.5 mg·liter-1 and NAA at 0.5 mg·liter-1 or on immature peppermint embryos (chilled at SC for 0.6 day or nonchilled) cultured on basal medium containing BA at 1 mg·liter-1 and TIBA at 1 mg·liter-1 Shoots were proliferated, rooted, and acclimated. with 100% survival under greenhouse conditions. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl) -1H-purin-6-amine (BA); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA).

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Jameel M. Al-Khayri, Feng H. Huang, and Teddy E. Morelock

Callus, induced in the dark from leaf tissue of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Fall Green) on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with (in mg·liter -1) 2 kinetin and 0.5 2,4-D regenerated shoots upon transfer to a medium containing 2 kinetin, 0.01 2,4-D, and 1 GA3. Complete plants were established by stimulating rooting of the shoots with 1 mg IBA/liter and transferring them to potting soil; survival was 60%. Chemical names used: N-(2-furanylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (kinetin); 2;4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D); gibberellic acid (GA3); 1H-indole-3-butanoic acid (IBA).

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Modeste Kan Kouassi, Jane Kahia, Christophe N’guessan Kouame, Mathias Gnion Tahi, and Edmond Kouablan Koffi

different cocoa genotypes react differently to different callus-inducing hormones ( Traore and Guiltinan, 2006 ). Plant growth regulators play a key role by intervening in the reactions that lead to a reorientation of the program of gene expression. This