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Youping Sun, Guihong Bi, Genhua Niu, and Christina Perez

pruned or pinched on an annual basis to prevent them from being “leggy” and to promote lateral branching. Pruning or pinching is a common technique in hydrangea production to reduce plant size, stimulate lateral branching, improve overall appearance, and

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Mara Grossman, John Freeborn, Holly Scoggins, and Joyce Latimer

To meet the challenges of producing plants for sale, growers frequently use plant growth regulators (PGRs) to control plant height, branching, and flowering. BA is a PGR that increases branching in floriculture crops when sprayed on containerized

Open access

Lili Dong, Tongrui Liu, Di Gao, Jing Li, and Jie Qian

Petunia ( Petunia ×hybrida ) is one of the most important ornamental plants. In its cultivation, artificial topping is required to promote branch development to achieve the ornamental effects, but this task greatly increases the production cost

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Christopher J. Currey and John E. Erwin

It is desirable for commercial potted, bedding, and foliage plants to be well-branched and compact in habit ( Roh and Lawson, 1998 ). Ideally, these characteristics are achieved genetically through breeding and selection during crop development

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Hans C. Wien

termed branching cultivars ( Armitage and Laushman, 2003 ). The response of oilseed cultivars ( Majid and Schneiter, 1987 ; Robinson et al., 1980 ) and cut flower sunflower ( Wien, 2016 ) to planting density have been well documented; however, the

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Amir Rezazadeh, Richard L. Harkess, and Guihong Bi

. The plant has the potential to become a popular flowering potted plant because of its attractive red flower spikes and dark green foliage. Since the plant tends to grow upright, enhanced branching has the potential to improve plant architecture

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Zana C. Somda and Stanley J. Kays

The effect of the plant density (15, 30, 45 × 96-cm spacing) on the branching pattern `Jewel' sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was determined bi-weekly for 18 weeks. Plant density effects were significant for the number of branches formed and timing of branch formation. Plant density did not affect the type of branches formed (e.g., primary, secondary, and tertiary), but did alter the timing of induction during the growing season. By the end of the growing period, the ratios for the number of primary to secondary branches were 1.5:1, 1.3:1, and 0.6:1 at the 15-, 30-, and 45-cm spacing, respectively. Few tertiary branches were formed, but were present on some plants at each spacing. Tertiary branches most commonly occurred on plants at the widest spacing. While the number of branches per plant was highly plastic and inversely related to plant density, nodes per branch and internode length were not significantly affected. Average internode length per branch decreased with descending branch hierarchy (i,e., main stem < primary branch < secondary branch). `Jewel' sweet potato responded to increased space available largely through production of additional branches with the modification of branching pattern increasing as the season progressed.

Open access

Bruce L. Dunn, Stephen Stanphill, and Carla Goad

life, growth habits, and varying colors and maturity dates ( Dunn et al., 2011 ). Sales and transportation of poinsettias rely heavily on height, compactness, and branching habit ( Alem et al., 2015 ; Meijón et al., 2009 ). Most commercially sold

Open access

Brent Tisserat, Danny Jones, and Paul D. Galletta

Abstract

Juice vesicles in several Citrus species and cultivars differentiate additional vesicle apex primordia. Four distinct types of juice vesicles were described and quantified in citrus fruits: solitary (single stalk/single vesicle body/single apex primordium), dual-tipped (single stalk/single vesicle body/dual apex primordia), multiple-tipped (single stalk/single vesicle body/multiple apex primordia) and branched (single-stalk/multiple vesicle bodies/multiple apex primordia). The type and frequency of branching varies considerably among species and within cultivars. Branching was found in grapefruit, mandarin, pummelo, and tangelo, but not in blood orange, citron, lemon, lime, navel orange, rough lemon, sour orange, sweet orange, Valencia orange, and several other species. ‘Kao Panne’ pummelo [Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill] exhibited one of the highest rates of vesicle branching, with 72% of its vesicles exhibiting this condition. The average number of branching vesicles produced per stalk was 3.7 for this cultivar. The frequency of branching was below 50% in other branched groups (e.g., grapefruit, mandarin, and tangelo).

Open access

Dennis P. Stimart

Abstract

Axillary shoot growth on scions of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild, ex Klotz) was regulated by grafting nonbranching (‘C-1’) and self-branching (‘Amy’, ‘Glory’, ‘Super Rochford’) cultivars on each other. Branching of ‘C-1’ was increased when scions were grafted onto self-branching rootstocks and branching was decreased on self-branching cultivars grafted onto ‘C-1’ rootstocks. Initiation of axillary bud growth was promoted on younger nodes of ‘C-1’ when grafted onto self-branching rootstocks. Increased branching propensity of ‘C-1’ scions grafted onto rootstocks of self-branching types continued even after vegetative cuttings were rooted. Axillary bud activity was unaffected by leaf removal. Results suggest that axillary bud activity is governed by shoot and root interactions of the plant and that axillary shoot growth is governed by some endogenous factors translocated from the roots across the graft union to the shoot.