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George Gizas, Ioannis Tsirogiannis, Maria Bakea, Nikolaos Mantzos, and Dimitrios Savvas

growing media originating from waste organic residues ( Nektarios et al., 2011 ). Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, which is a higher aquatic plant belonging to the family potamogetonaceae of the Monocotyledoneae class, is very common in the Mediterranean

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Renee Keydoszius and Mary Haque

During the fall semester of 2003, a Clemson University introductory landscape design class collaborated with South Carolina Botanical Gardens staff and coordinators of Sprouting Wings, an after school gardening program for at risk children, to design an exploratory Children's Garden within the Botanical Gardens. Project methodology included site selection, research, site analysis, conceptual diagrams, preliminary designs, and full color renderings of final designs. Students periodically presented their progress on the project to the clients in order to receive feedback and advice. One of the thirteen themed gardens designed is the Wonders of Water Garden. Project goals were to create a center for environmental education addressing current issues in water quality such as pollution from industries and runoff, erosion, stream degradation, and sedimentation resulting from land clearing and development. Visitors will be able to observe and learn about various environmental factors affecting native plant and animal life. The garden will help to teach environmental stewardship and understanding of general aquatic ecology. An observation deck, serpentine bridge through a bog garden, and a bridge crossing a waterfall stream will allow close observation of native aquatic plant and animal life. The Wonders of Water Garden design includes the bog garden and carnivorous garden that border two pools connected by a stream of small waterfalls which may be used to create awareness of current water quality issues and serve as a model to teach visitors the importance of water and aquatic plants in the environment.

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Thomas Holt, Brian Maynard, and William Johnson

Constructed wetlands are an effective, low-cost method of water treatment that may reduce agricultural pollutants from nursery runoff. It has been suggested that the expense of implementing such systems could be recovered by growing aquatic plants that could be sold to retail and wholesale markets. However, this demand could probably be satisfied through a few wetlands. It would be desirable if more traditional nursery crops could be incorporated into treatment wetlands. Several taxa of Cannas, Iris, and ornamental grasses are selected cultivars of wetland plants that have been used in treatment wetlands for decades. However little data exists on these cultivar's nutrient uptake rates and survivability in treatment wetlands. Nutrient uptake and growth rates of Canna × generalis cultivars `Aflame', `King Humbert', and `Pretoria', Glyceria maxima `Variegata', Iris pseudacorus, Iris versicolor, Phalaris arundinacea `Luteo-Picta', Pragmites australis `Variegata', and Spartina pectinata `Aureo-marginata' were compared to the widely used Typha latifolia. Single divisions of each were established in a constructed wetland and batch fed weekly a commercial fertilizer solution reconstituted to 100 ppm-N. Plants were harvested after 75 days and biomass and tissue nutrient content was determined. Mean biomass of Typha latifolia was 212 g/division and nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation was 4.5 and 0.8 g/division, respectively. The biomass of the other species ranged from 101 to 175 g/division and had total accumulation of nutrients ranging from 2.5 to 3.8 g nitrogen/division and 0.35 to 0.85 g phosphorus/division.

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Donglin Zhang, Diemeng Hu, and John Smagula

Iris versicolor (blue-flag iris) is a native aquatic plant that grows from Maine to Virginia. It is an important species of wetland regeneration and restoration. Unfortunately, seed germination seldom occurs in the wild. To address this problem, seeds of Iris versicolor were soaked with gibberellin acid (0, 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) for 24 h after 120 days of cold treatment at 4 °C and then were randomly assigned to three germination temperatures (constant 21 °C; 24 °C/18 °C; 27C/15 °C) and placed in darkness. Germination rates for the three temperature treatments were 54.4% (21 °C), 96.5% (24 °C/18 °C), and 96.0% (27C/15 °C). Oscillating temperature treatments had significantly greater germination rate than constant temperature. Gibberellin acid had significant influence on germination rate; only the constant 21 °C was not favorable for germination. The germination rate was higher at 1000 than at 500 ppm or 1500 ppm or more. Germination occurred within 10 days under germination temperature treatments. All seedlings in petri dishes were successfully transplanted into growing flats.

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treatments. Current fungicides recommended for control of anthracnose canker are not reliably effective for long-term cider apple production in a maritime climate. Greenhouse Production of Native Aquatic Plants Wetland restoration is critical for improving

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Production Protocol for Native Aquatic Plants Native aquatic plants promote balanced ecosystems, improve water quality, control erosion, and contribute to the beauty of water bodies. However, they often are displaced by invasive aquatic species

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Lyn A. Gettys and Michael A. Schnelle

.A. Gettys outlined native aquatic plants that “break bad” and act like invasive species. J.M. Ruter focused on reforming the “seedy character” cherry laurel ( Prunus caroliniana ), and K.W. Leonhardt talked about using induced sterility as a management

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Fang Xu, Junqin Zong, Jingbo Chen, Jianjian Li, Dandan Li, Jianxiu Liu, and Fang Xu

selected plant for constructed wetlands are mainly concentrated in aquatic plants, such as reed, cattail ( Typha angustifolia , T. angustifolia ), cress, and others because of their long growing period, large biomass, and strong vitality ( Lu et al., 2016

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Jen A. Sembera, Tina M. Waliczek, and Erica J. Meier

used as an alternative to the use of herbicides or disposal of the biomass in a landfill. This is an important finding regionally, as researchers have argued ( Owens et al., 2001 ) that nearly 80% of the native shoreline aquatic plants along the San

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Daike Tian and Ken Tilt

” means thousand-petals. The name can be translated into “ultimate thousand-petals” in English. This lotus grows in a pond of SCBG and was introduced by an aquatic plant researcher, Dr. Lei Chen, in 2008 from a small nursery owned by Mr. Changxin Chen in