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Jenjira Chumpookam, Huey-Ling Lin, and Ching-Chang Shiesh

Smoke-water is a chemical extract used to stimulate the germination of many plant species under cultivation. This study evaluated the efficacy of smoke-water on the seed germination and seedling growth of papaya (Carica papaya cv. Tainung No. 2). Smoke-water, prepared from dry rice straw (Oryza sativa) by burning and bubbling the smoke through water, was used for germination experiments, growth experiments, and anatomical structure changes of seeds. In the germination experiments, papaya seeds were soaked with different concentrations of smoke-water (0.1%, 0.2%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 7%, or 10%, v/v) for 24 h before planting. Low concentrations of smoke-water (0.1% or 0.2%, v/v) not only promoted the maximum rate of germination, but also shortened the germination time. Analysis of longitudinal sections of seeds treated with smoke-water concentrations of 0.1% or 0.2% v/v suggested that smoke-water could overcome water impermeability barriers, because it stimulated the seedcoat to rupture and allowed the radical to elongate and emerge faster. In the growth experiments, papaya seedlings were transplanted into peatmoss-filled pots that were saturated with different concentrations of smoke-water (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 7%, or 10%, v/v). Results showed that all growth parameters increased significantly compared with the control. In addition, smoke-water treatments consistently and significantly increased the percentage of nitrogen in roots and shoots and significantly increased the percentage of magnesium in shoots. In these experiments, smoke-water showed potent germination promotion at low concentrations and promoted multiple growth attributes such as chlorophyll content and seedling vigor index at all concentrations in papaya seedling production.

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Ying Gao, Hao Liu, Ningguang Dong, and Dong Pei

based on anatomical structure. These were the floral induction period with three stages, the pedicel, bract, perianth, and pistil differentiation periods. Flower bud differentiation began on 25 Apr. 2010. In the initial stages, the apex was wrapped in

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Cevriye Mert

, anatomical structure, and surface morphology of the pollen grains of some cornelian cherry cultivars native to the Anatolian peninsula. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on cornelian cherry cultivars Degirmendere, Erkenci Degirmendere, İri Bardak

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Cevriye Mert

promote a better understanding of the reproductive biology of walnut cultivars and may identify characteristics of taxonomic and phylogenetic interest. In this study, the anatomical structure of the anther and pollen grains of several walnut cultivars were

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Menahem Edelstein and Haim Nerson

( Edelstein et al., 2001 ). The anatomical structure of the seedcoat acts in many species as a physical barrier to gas exchange and/or to radicle breakthrough. In Beta vulgaris ( Coumans et al., 1976 ; Santos and Pereria, 1989 ) and Datura sp. ( Reisman

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Jing-jing Zhao, Xun Chen, Li-juan Fan, and Ling Wang

sanguinea , and ( C ) I. sanguinea f. albiflora . The flower color of ‘Dream of the Butterfly’ is light violet, compared with its blue violet male parent I. sanguinea and white female parent I. sanguinea f. albiflora. Fig. 2. ( A ) Anatomical

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Wahiba Boutebtoub, Michel Chevalier, Jean-Claude Mauget, Monique Sigogne, Philippe Morel, and Gilles Galopin

in the cells of the parenchymatous cortex, the endodermis, and the pericycle in the form of small grains ( Fig. 6 ). Figs. 6–7. Anatomical structure of young roots of Mandevilla sanderi . Figs. 6 – 7 . Transverse sections stained with Schiff

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Gang-Yi Wu, Jun-Ai Hui, Zai-Hua Wang, Jie Li, and Qing-Sheng Ye

characteristics in all experiments. All determinations were replicated three times. Leaf structure. The anatomical structure of the leaves was examined under an optical microscope (DM 6000B; Leica, Germany) and a scanning electron microscope (S-3500N; Hitachi

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Ling Wang, Yu-jia Liu, Nai-xin Liu, Yue Gong, Ya-nan Li, and Jing-hong Wang

. The scape is smooth and has white powder on the surface. The edges of inner and outer perianths fold in a wavy pattern. The flower color is white. Fig. 2. Flower anatomic structure of ‘White Skirt’. Each flower has three inner perianths, three outer

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Xun Chen, Nai-xin Liu, Li-juan Fan, Yu Du, and Ling Wang

blooming (lateral view). Fig. 2. Single flower of I. sanguinea and ‘Zi Meiren’ in blooming (vertical view). Fig. 3. Anatomical structure of I. sanguinea and ‘Zi Meiren’, indicating outer perianths, inner perianths, style arms, bracts, filaments, anthers