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Neil S. Mattson and W. Roland Leatherwood

Silicon (Si) is not considered an essential plant nutrient; however, several plant species demonstrate improved disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and altered morphological traits when Si is present ( Epstein, 1999 ). Soil contains, on

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Yu Liu, Miao He, Fengli Dong, Yingjie Cai, Wenjie Gao, Yunwei Zhou, He Huang, and Silan Dai

Drought, salinity, and other abiotic stresses have serious effects on plant photosynthesis, respiration, and the entire growth and development process. The ways and methods of plants dealing with various abiotic stresses in the environment are

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Hira Singh, Pradeep Kumar, Sushila Chaudhari, and Menahem Edelstein

exploited to deal with the abiotic stresses such as salinity ( Colla et al., 2010 , 2013 ; Cuartero et al., 2006 ; Estan et al., 2005 ; Santa-Cruz et al., 2001 , 2002 ), low ( Venema et al., 2008 ) and high ( Abdelmageed and Gruda, 2009 ; Rivero et al

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Sanalkumar Krishnan and Emily B. Merewitz

., 2007 ). Specifically, for abiotic stress, PAs are known to be involved in stabilization of plant membranes and cellular structures by binding to membrane phospholipids. They also play a role in OA, modulating ion channels, act as reactive oxygen species

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Naser Lotfi, Kourosh Vahdati, Bahman Kholdebarin, and Elaheh Najafian Ashrafi

sensitive crop to specific ion toxicity ( Catlin and Schreader, 1985 ) and because of that, finding mechanisms involved in resistance to abiotic stresses, especially from the ionomics point of view, are important in this crop. Current studies are focused on

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Shinsuke Agehara

Transplanting results in transplant shock in seedlings, limiting stand establishment and productivity of many vegetable crops ( Agehara and Leskovar, 2012 ; Vavrina, 2002 ). Transplant shock is caused by various types of abiotic stress occurring

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Smiljana Goreta, Daniel I. Leskovar, and John L. Jifon

Transplanting is a common cultural practice used to improve stand establishment, shorten the field growing cycle, enhance earliness, and eventually increase yield and quality of vegetable crops. After transplanting, biotic and abiotic stressors

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Zipeng Tian, Bingru Huang, and Faith C. Belanger

, although there are many examples demonstrating that is not the case. The plants provide nutrients to the endophytes and the endophytes provide tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses to the plants, although the specific benefits vary among the many grass

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Hrvoje Rukavina, Harrison G. Hughes, and Yaling Qian

Freezing is the major abiotic stress that limits geographic distribution of warm season turfgrasses. Prior studies have indicated variation in freezing tolerance in saltgrass clones. Therefore, this study examined freezing tolerance of 27 saltgrass clones as related to collection sites in three zones of cold hardiness. Furthermore, these clones were evaluated for time of leaf browning in the fall with the intent to determine if there was a correlation between this trait and freezing tolerance. Rhizomes were sampled during 2004 and 2005 midwinters from clones established in Fort Collins, Colo., and then subjected to a freezing test in a programmable freezer. Saltgrass freezing tolerance was highly influenced by the climatic zone of clone origin in both years of the experiment. Clones with greater freezing tolerance turned brown earlier in fall in both seasons. Ranking of zones for the average LT50 (lethal temperature at which 50% of rhizomes died) was: zone 4, most northern (−17.2 °C) < zone 5 (−14.4 °C), < zone 6, most southern (−11.1 °C) in 2004, and zone 4 (−18.3 °C), < zone 5 (−15.7 °C) < zone 6 (−13.1 °C) in 2005. Clones from northern areas tolerated lower freezing temperatures overall. This likely indicates that freezing tolerance is inherited. Large intraspecific variation in freezing tolerance may be effectively used in developing cold hardy cultivars.